RAMAZAN ORUCU SAĞLIĞA ZARARLI MI?

Yabancı menşeli popüler bilim sitelerinde oruç üzerine araştırma yaparken kabaca iki farklı oruçtan bahsedildiğini görmekteyiz. Bunlardan biri beslenme uzmanlarının, diyetisyenlerin çalışma alanına giren “kesintili oruç” diğeri ise Ramazan orucu gibi oruçlar yerine de kullanılan “tam oruç” kavramıdır. Kesintili oruç, belli faydaları ve yan etkileri olmakla birlikte bu yazımızın konusu değil. Biz bu yazımızda pubmed, nature, healthline gibi başlıca bilim sitelerinin “ramazan orucu” ile ilgili makalelerinden aldığımız bilgilere kısaca değinmeye çalışacağız;

Nature dergisi ramazan orucunun metabolizmada yaptığı değişikliklerin sağlıklı bireyler için sorun teşkil edecek kadar büyük olmadığı belirterek başlıyor.Pubmed da benzer şekilde, ramazan orucunun sağlıklı yetişkinler için hem fiziksel hem de bilişsel ciddi olumsuz bir etkisinin olmadığını söylüyor. Peki diğer küçük sorunlar nelerdir; Ramazan orucunda bildiğiniz gibi su dahil bütün besinler için kısıtlama getirilir. Nature dergisi gündüz saatleri susuz kalınmasının vücuttaki su dengesini olumsuz etkilediğine dair net bir bilgi yok derken, pubmed dergisi ise su eksikliğinden dolayı dehidrasyon(yetersiz şu) oluşacağını ve bunun da böbrek taşları bulunan böbrek hastaları için olumsuz etkisi olabileceğine değiniyor. Healthline sitesinden doktor Nazima Qureshi bunun için oruç tutulmayan saatlerde belirli aralıklarla su içilmesi ve sahur vaktinde kavun, karpuz, çilek gibi su içeriği yüksek meyve ve sebzelerin tüketilmesini öneriyor.

Ramazanda yemek sıklığı azaldığından genel olarak bireylerde bir kilo kaybı olduğu görülse de nature dergisindeki verilere göre bu kilo kayıpları 0,7-3,6 kg aralığında düşük kilo kayıpları olduklarından herhangi bir sorun teşkil etmiyor. Tabi kilo kayıplarının kişiden kişiye, bölgeden bölgeye bireylerde farklı olduğu ve her bireyde kilo kaybı gerçekleşmediği de belirtilir. Pubmed da benzer şekilde oluşan kilo kayıplarının fizyolojik açıdan sorun teşkil etmediğini ve ramazanda verilen kiloların genellikle ramazan sonrasında geri alındığını belirtmektedir.

Bunun yanında ilgili makalelerde oruçlu bireylerde baş ağrısı, stres, halsizlik gibi bazı küçük sorunların artışından da bahsedilmiştir. Fakat Nature dergisinde verilen bilgiye göre bu tür olaylar daha çok baş ağrısına yatkın bireylerde görülüyor. Healthline’daki makalede de ise kafein ve özellikle karbonhidrat eksikliğinin baş ağrısına sebep olabileceği belirtilmiştir.

Bir de ilaç kullanan ve hamile bireylerin duruma kısaca değinelim;

Nature dergisi oruç tutan hamile bireylerde enerji ve sıvı alımında azalma olacağından bunun fetal büyüme üzerinden bazı zararlı yan etkileri etkileri olabileceğinden bahsediyor. Pubmed ise iyi beslenen hamile kadınlarda oruç tutmanın çocuk üzerinde olumsuz bir etkisi olmadığını fakat yine de oruç tutmamalarını tavsiye ettiklerini belirtiyor.

Healthline sitesinde Waterloo Üniversitesi’nde lisanslı bir klinik eczacı ve yardımcı doçent olan doktor Wasem Alsabbagh, çoğu ilacın oruçlu iken devam edebileceğini ve sürdürülmesi gerektiğini açıklıyor. Bu ilaçların akşam yemeği ve sahur yemeğinin oruç programına uyacak şekilde ayarlanması gerektiğini söylüyor. Bunun yanında “Oruçla birlikte ilaç programını değiştiren bireylerin tıbbi durumu kötüleştiriyorsa, hastalar oruç tutmamalıdır” şeklinde ekliyor. Pubmed makalesinde ise “Ramazan orucunun sağlık açısından koruyucu etkileri olduğunu gösterse de hasta bireylerin Ramazan ayında oruç tutmak için sağlık ekiplerine başvurmaları gerekmektedir” şeklinde bir açıklamada bulunuyor.

Sonuç olarak özetlersek; ufak tefek küçük sorunlar dışında sağlıklı bireylerde Ramazan orucunun olumsuz bir etkisi bulunmamaktadır. Oruçtan olumsuz etkilenebilecek bireyler ise daha çok ilaç kullanan hastalar veya hamile bireyler olarak gösterilmektedir. Bunun yanında ilgili makalelerde bazı hastalıkların oruç halindeki belirtileri tek tek ele alınmış, bir kısmının ufak bazı zararlı etkileri olurken bazılarının faydalı bazılarının ise oruçtan etkilenmediğine değiniliyor. Bu tür durumlar da Ramazan orucunun sağlığa zararlı olduğuna dair deliller olamaz zira İslam dini oruç tutamayacak kadar hasta olan bireyler icin zorunluluk yüklemiyor.

Ey iman edenler! Sizden öncekilerin üzerine yazıldığı gibi sakınasınız diye sizin üzerinize de sayılı günlerde oruç yazıldı. İçinizden hasta veya yolcu olan, başka günlerden sayısınca tutar. Orucu tutmakta zorlananlar için bir yoksulun (günlük) yiyeceği kadar fidye yeterlidir. Bir iyiliği mecbur olmadan yapan için bu (yaptığı) iyidir. Ama orucu tutmanız -bilirseniz- sizin için daha hayırlıdır.(bakara 183-184)

Bunun dışında orucun sağlık açısından kısaca birkaç faydasına değinelim;

Nature makalesinde Ramazan orucunun kalp damar hastalıkları olasılığını azaltmada çeşitli faydaları olduğunu belirtiyor

Healthline makalesinde hem aralıklı oruç tutmanın hem de gün aşırı oruç tutmanın, insülin direncini azaltmada kalori alımını sınırlamak kadar etkili olduğunu belirtiyor. İnsülin direncini azaltmak, vücudunuzun insüline duyarlılığını artırabilir ve glikozu kan dolaşımınızdan hücrelerinize daha verimli bir şekilde taşımasına olanak tanır.

Healthline makalesinde, hayvanlar üzerinde yapılan araştırmada oruç tutmanın potansiyel yaşam süresini uzatan etkileri olduğuna dair bilgiler mevcuttur

Aynı makalede orucun kanseri önlemeye yardımcı olabileceği ve kemoterapinin etkinliğini artırabileceği belirtilmiştir

Pubmed makalesinde orucun özellikle sporcular açısından kan şekerinin dengesinde olumlu faydaları olduğu belirtilmektedir

Son olarak araştırmalarımızdan aldığımız şu kısa notu düşerek belirtelim; Diyet ve oruç gibi uygulamalar kişiden kişiye, bölgeden bölgeye değişebilecek etkilere sahip. O yüzden herhangi bir diyet veya orucun tüm insanlığa faydalı veya tüm insanlığa zararlı olduğu net bir şekilde söylenemez.

Kaynakça

1)https://www.nature.com/articles/1601899

2)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4274578/

3)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26013791/

4)https://www.healthline.com/health/diarrhea-during-fasting#takeaway

5)https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/fasting-benefits

yazarlar; Fırat Oğhan, Uğur Ergin

RAMAZAN ORUCU SAĞLIĞA ZARARLI MI?

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