GAZALİ’NİN ŞÜPHECİLİK ÜZERİNE RÜYA ARGÜMANI

Şuan muhtemelen uyanık olduğunuzu, uyumadığınızı ve rüyada olmadığınızı düşünüyorsunuz. Fakat, rüya görmediğinizi biliyor musunuz?

Fransız filozof Rene Descartes (1596–1650) İlk Felsefe Üzerine Meditasyonlar adlı kitabının başında buna benzer bir soru sorar. Cevabı ise şudur; rüyada olmadığından emin olamadığı için, rüyada olmadığını bilmiyordu ve bilmediği için de duyuları sayesinde edindiği hiçbir inanç bilgiye ulaşamazdı.

Bilgiye sahip olup olmadığımızı ve şüpheciliğin (bilgiden yoksun olduğumuzu söyleyen görüş) dayanağını sorgulamak için rüyaların kullanımı çağdaş filozofların kabul ettiğinden daha zengin bir tarihe sahiptir. İranlı Müslüman filozof ve fıkıhçı, Ebu Hamid el-Gazali (1058–1111) Descartes’dan 500 yıldan daha uzun bir süre önce bilgi hakkında şüpheci endişeleri dile getirmek için rüyaları kullandı.

Bu makale, Gazali’nin otobiyografik eseri el-Münkız mine’d Dalal’deki (Dalaletten Kurtuluş), Rüya Argümanının rolünü ve herhangi bir bilgimiz olup olmadığı konusunda şüphe uyandırmak için nasıl kullandığını değerlendirir.

1. Şüphe Vasıtasıyla Gazali’nin Entelektüel Yolculuğu

Gazali, Dalaletten Kurtuluş kitabını kendisine şüpheden kesinliğe doğru olan entelektüel yolculuğunu soran isimsiz bir muhabire olan bir mektup olarak çerçevelemiştir. Gazali entelektüel yolculuğuna gençken, yetiştiği İslami çevreden kazandığı dini ve kültürel inanışlara emin bir şekilde tutunarak başladı. İnançlarının Hıristiyan ve Yahudi olarak yetişen insanlardan farklı olduğunu fark edince inandığı şeylerden şüphe duymaya başlar (*). Kendi toplumunda genel olarak kabul gören inançların doğru olup olmadığını belirlemek ve eğer söz konusu inançlar doğruysa bunların doğruluğunu şüphe götürmez bir şekilde bilmek ister. Bundan dolayı, kesinlik kazanmaya yönelik adımlarını açıklar.

İlk adım olarak, Gazali duyularından ve akıldan neye inandığını kesin olarak bilip bilmediğini söylemesine yardımcı olacak bir ölçüt önerir ve üzerine düşünür:

“O zaman bana kesin ve emin bilginin, bilinen şeyin ona dayanacak kadar çok apaçık olduğu, ne yanılgı ve hata ihtimalinin olduğu ne de aklın böyle bir olasılığı varsayabileceği fikri açık bir hale geldi.”

Gazali, inançlarının çoğunun bu ölçeğe dayanamayacağını anladı. Dahası, duyusal tecrübelerinden gelen bilgilerden de şüphelenmeye başladı çünkü onlar hataya ve rasyonel inanışlardan gelen düzeltmeye eğilimlilerdi:

“Duyuların en güçlüsü görme duyusudur. Göz bir gölgeye bakar, hareketsiz ve sabit olduğunu görür ve onda hareket olmadığına hükmeder. Sonra, tecrübe ve gözlem sebebiyle bir müddet sonra gölgenin hareket ettiğini anlar…. Yine göz, yıldıza bakar ve bir dinar büyüklüğünde küçük bir şey olduğunu görür: fakat geometrik deliller bulunduğumuz küreden onun daha büyük olduğunu gösterir. Bu ve buna benzer duyu verileri durumunda duyu-yargıcı kararını verir ama akıl-yargıcı bunu reddeder ve tekrar tekrar yanıltır.”

Dolayısıyla Gazali, duyusal deneyimlerle ilgili daha önce sahip olduğu kesinlikten şüphelenmeye başlar. Duyusal deneyimlerin gerçekten de hakikati temsil ettiğinden şüphelenmemiz için pek çok sebebimiz vardır çünkü çoğu zaman başka bir duyusal tecrübe önceki bir tecrübeyle çelişir (bir müddet sonra gölge izlendiğinde olanlar gibi. Kullandığımız matematiksel kanıtlar ya da diğer bilimsel yöntemler veya Gazali’nin yıldız örneği gibi) gerçekliğe karşı duyusal tecrübelerden şüphelenmek için bir sebep sağlar.

2. Gazali’nin Rüya Argümanı

Gazali, daha sonra inançları akla göre değerlendirir ( birincil bilgiler dediği şey) örneğin 10 > 3 ya da aynı iddianın aynı anda doğrulanamayacağı ve reddedilemeyeceği gibi. Bu inançlar, duyusal deneyimlerden gelen inançlardan daha iyi sonuç vermez.

Okuyucusunun bunun nedenini anlamasına yardım etmek için Gazali duyularını kişileştirir ki böylece onlarla tartışabilirler. Duyular, aklın (Gazali duyusal tecrübelerden “daha yüksek” kapasitede olduğuna inanır) duyusal tecrübelerden şüphelenmek için kullanılabileceğini ve hatta “daha yüksek” bir kapasitenin aklın inanışları hakkında şüphe uyandırabileceğini ileri sürerler.

Bu hayali tartışmada, Gazali’nin duyusal tecrübeleri bir rüya analojisine başvurarak argümanlarını güçlendirirler. Rüyadayken, kuşkusuz rüyamızın gerçek olduğuna inanırız. Fakat uyanırız ve rüyamızın gerçek olmadığını fark ederiz. Yani, analojiyle, eğer üçüncü bir tür tecrübeye sahip olsaydık (rüyadayken ya da uyanıkken olmayan bir tecrübe) uyanıkken normalde sahip olduğumuz düşüncelerden şüphe edebilirdik. Bu üçüncü tür tecrübeye sahip olmak bir rüyadan uyanmaya benzerdi: daha gerçekçi bir realiteye uyanırdık.

Dalaletten Kurtuluş‘ta daha sonra Gazali bu üçüncü tür tecrübenin ihtimali tartışmasına geri dönüyor. Hepimizin aklın ötesinde bir yeteneğe sahip olduğumuzu söylüyor; tahmin yeteneği.

Çoğumuz bunları tecrübe etmese de, peygamberler ve onların yanı sıra mutasavvıflar kendilerinin adanmışlıklarından ötürü böyle durumların ustasıdırlar. Gazali böyle olayları “ilhami tecrübeler” olarak tanımlar ve bunlar vasıtasıyla Allah ile samimi bir ilişkiye sahip olunur. Allah’ın mükemmellikleri, özellikle O’nun her şeyi bilmesi ve iyiliği göz önüne alındığında, Allah’ın mümkün kılması sayesinde kişinin tecrübe ettiği bu ilhami olay; duyusal ve akılcı inançlarımızın çoğuna kesinlik sağlar. Diğer bir deyişle, Gazali’ye göre, bir insan sadece Allah’ın sağladığı bu ilhami tecrübeye sahip olduğu zaman bilebilir.

Bir kişi Allah’ın varlığını veya bu ilhami tecrübeleri kabul etmese bile, akılla ve apaçık delillerle ilişkilendirdiğimiz kesinlik hakkında şüpheler uyandırabilir çünkü Gazali’nin kişileştirip okura sunduğu duyuların analojisi vasıtasıyla daha yüksek bir kapasite ihtimalini göz önünde bulunduruyoruz.

3. Netice

Dalaletten Kurtuluş kitabının başında, Gazali ilk bakışta kesin görünen bilginin doğası hakkında bir dizi şüpheyi ortaya çıkarıyor. Geri kalanında, Gazali çeşitli disiplinlerden oluşan çalışmalarını anlatıyor; akılcı teoloji(kelam), Aristotelesçi felsefe, İsmailizm ve Tasavvuf. Tasavvuf hariç bu disiplinlerden hiçbiri Gazali’nin rüya argümanıyla ilgili ortaya attığı şüphelerin üstesinden gelmesini mümkün kılmaz.

Notlar

(*) “Şeylerin gerçek anlamın kavramaya yönelik duyduğum susuzluk aslında benim hayatım ilk zamanlarından beri değişmeyecek olan yaşam biçimimdi. Bu, kendi seçimimden ve planımdan kaynaklanan bir şey değildi, En Yüce Tanrı tarafından içime yerleştirilen içgüdüsel doğal bir eğilimdi. Sonuç olarak, tembelliğin zincirleri benden uzaktı ve miras kalan inançlar epey gençken üzerimdeki etkisini kaybetti.”

Referanslar

Gazali, Dalaletten Kurtulus: El Münkizü Min-ed-dalal

Descartes, İlk Felsefe Üzerine Meditasyonlar

Yazar Hakkında

John Ramsey: Northern Colorado üniversitesinde felsefe başkanı ve yardımcı doçenttir. İlk dönem Çin felsefesi ve çağdaş sosyal bilimler felsefesi üzerinde çalışmaktadır. Çalışmalarından bazıları: Philosophy East and West, The Journal of Chinese Philosophy and Asian Philosophy

çevrilen yazı: https://1000wordphilosophy.com/2020/07/25/al-ghazalis-dream-argument/

not: orjinal yazıda bulunan bazı gereksiz notlar ve kaynaklar eklenmemiştir.

GAZALİ’NİN ŞÜPHECİLİK ÜZERİNE RÜYA ARGÜMANI

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