İBLİSİN İTİRAZI VE MELEKLERİN SORUSU

Araf suresi, 11-18 arası ayetlerde Allah’ın meleklerden hz.Adem’e secde etmeleri emrini verdiği ve iblisin buna kibirlenerek isyan etmesi, devamında da kendisine kıyamete kadar mühlet verildiği şeklindeki kıssa geçer. Durum böyle iken akıllara şöyle bir soru geliyor;

1)İblis Allah’â isyan etmeyip secde emrini kabul etseydi imtihan dünyası yine de yaratılacak mıydı?

Halk arasında imtihan hayatının başlamasının ana sebebi her ne kadar bu olay olarak anlatılsa da ana sebebin bu olmadığını söyleyebiliriz. Bakara 30 ayetinde Allah’ın melekler ile olan konuşmasına baktığımızda aslında insanın yaratılışının ilgili olaydan öncesinde belirlendiğini görüyoruz;

Hani, Rabbin meleklere, “Ben yeryüzünde bir halife yaratacağım” demişti. Onlar, “Orada bozgunculuk yapacak, kan dökecek birini mi yaratacaksın? Oysa biz sana hamdederek daima seni tesbih ve takdis ediyoruz.” demişler. Allah da, “Ben sizin bilmediğinizi bilirim” demişti. (Bakara 30)

İblis itaatkar bir kul olsaydı bile insanoğlu yine aynı şekilde dünya hayatına gelecekti. İblisin itirazı ve isyanı ise burada sadece bir ara sebep olarak sayılabilir. Yine akıllara gelen ikinci soru ise şu şekilde;

2) İblis itiraz etmeseydi kötülük olacak mıydı, yoksa insanlar sürekli cennetteki gibi bir hayat mı sürecekti?

Yeni varlık(insan) da cinler gibi irade sahibi olacağı için aynı şekilde iyilik de kötülük de olacaktı. Ana sebep açısından bakarsak Nisa 78 ayetinde geçtiği gibi; iyilik de kötülük de Allah tarafından yaratılmıştır. İblisin kötülük ile sembolleşmiş olması kötülüğün yaratıcısı olduğu anlamına gelmez. Bakara 30 ayetinde meleklerin, “bozgunculuk yapacak, kan dökecek birini mi yaratacaksın” şeklinde bir soru sorduğuna değinmiştik. Bu ayetten de yola çıkılarak akıllara şu şekilde iki soru daha geliyor;

3) Melekler, insanın kan dökecek, bozgunluk yapacak bir varlık olduğunu nerden biliyorlardı, gaybı mı biliyordu?

4) Melekler bu soruyu sorarak, İblis gibi Allah’a itiraz etmiş olmuyorlar mı?

İlk iddia ile başlayalım; Melekler “insanın kan dökecek biri” olduğunu düşünmesi gaybı bildiği anlamına gelmez ki bilmiyorlar zaten. Nitekim bakara 30 ayetinin sonundaki “ben sizin bilmediklerinizi bilirim” kısmından da meleklerin herşeyi yada gaybı bilmediğini de anlıyoruz. Melekler insandan daha önce yaratılmış irade sahibi bir varlığın yaptıklarına bakarak böyle bir sonuca ulaşmış olabilirler; insanlardan önce irade sahibi olan cinler vardı, nitekim iblis de cinlerdendir. İrade sahibi bu varlıkların kötülük yapıyor olmasından insanın da kötülük yapacağı sonucuna varabilirler. Ki öncesinde cinler yaratılmış olmasaydı da, irade sahibi biri iyilik de kötülük de yapabilir, “Yapabilir” izninden “kötülük yapacaklar çıkacaktır” sonucuna varılabilir. İlgili ayet için Seyyid Kutub şöyle der;

Melekler ya sezgilerine ya yeryüzünde yaşanmış eski tecrübelere veya basiretlerinin sağladığı ilhama dayanarak “insan” adı verilen bu yeni varlığın yaratılışı veya yeryüzünde geçireceği hayat hakkında bazı bilgi kırıntılarına sahiptiler. Bu bilgi kırıntılarına dayanarak insanoğlunun yeryüzünde kargaşa çıkaracağını ve kan dökeceğini öngörüyor, ya da bekliyorlardı. Bunun yanında Melekler salt iyilikten ve yaygın barıştan başka hiçbir şey düşünmeyen bir yaratılışta olduğunu biliyoruz! (1)

Peki melekler bu soruyu hangi amaçla sordu?

Soru sormak her zaman itiraz anlamına gelmez bazen onay alma yada yeni birşey öğrenme maksadı ile de sorulabilir. Melekler geçmiş tecrübelerine yada sezgilerine dayanarak sadece bir durum tespiti yapmışlar ve tespitlerinin doğru olup olmadığını öğrenmek maksadı ile bir soru soruyorlar. Bu tıpkı çantasını hazırlayan çocuğa “okula mı gideceksin” sorusuna benzer. Ki  sadece “Allah’ın emrine uymakla” programlanmış meleklerin Allah’a itiraz ettiği düşünülemez. Bu yüzden meleklerin bu sorusu İblisin isyanı, itirazı ile bir tutulamaz. Nitekim bakara 30 ayetinin devamında, meleklerin Allah’ı yücelettiğine değinilir;

Allah, Adem’e bütün isimleri öğretti. Sonra bütün nesneleri meleklere göstererek, “Haydi, eğer davanızda haklı iseniz, bunların isimlerini bana söyleyin ” dedi. (Bakara 31)

Melekler “Ya Rabbi, sen yücesin, bizim senin bize öğrettiklerin dışında hiçbir bilgimiz yoktur, hiç şüphesiz sen herşeyi bilirsin ve her yaptığın yerindedir” dediler. (Bakara 32)

Kaynakça

1)Seyyid Kutup, Fi zilalil Kuran, Bakara 30 tefsiri

İBLİSİN İTİRAZI VE MELEKLERİN SORUSU

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