Ebu Abdullah El-Battani (858-929 )

Ebu Abdullah Muhammed bin Cabir bin Sinan El Battani El Harrani 858 yılında Harran’da doğdu ve bir hesaba göre Battan, Harran’ın bir eyaletidir. Battani, ilk olarak tanınmış bir bilim adamı da olan babası Cabir bin San’an El Battani tarafından eğitildi. Daha sonra Fırat nehrinin kıyısındaki ileri seviyede eğitim aldığı ve bilim adamı olarak geliştiği Rakka’ya taşındı. 9. yüzyılın başlarında, yaşamının sonuna kadar çalıştığı Samarra’ya 929 yılında göç etti. Sâbiî kökenli olsa da kendisi Müslümandı. El Battani Albategnius, Albategni veya Albatenius gibi çeşitli Latince isimlerle de bilinir. Tam ismi Ebu Abdullah Muhammed bin Cabir bin Sinan el Rakki el Harrani el Sabi el Battani’dir.

El Battani, Urfa’nın 38 km güneydoğusundaki Balikh Nehri kıyısında bulunan önceden Romalılar tarafından Carrhae olarak adlandırılan Harran’da doğdu. Ailesi Harranlıydı ve yıldızlara tapan Sâbiîlik mezhebinin üyeleriydi. Onların yıldızlara tapıyor olmaları, Sâbiîlerin astronomi çalışmaları için güçlü bir motivasyon kaynağıydı. Sâbiîler Sabit Bin Kurra gibi alanında başarılı astronom ve matematikçileri yetiştirdi. Aslında, Sabit de Harranlıydı ve El Battani’nin doğduğu zamanlarda orada yaşıyor olmalıydı. Sabit’in aksine, El Battani Sâbiîlik mezhebine inanmıyordu ve “Ebu Allah Muhammed” onun kesinlikle müslüman olduğunu gösteriyordu.

Kimlik kesin olmasa da, El Battani’nin babasının Harran’da bir çalgı yapımcısı olarak iyi bir üne sahip olan Cabir bin Sinan El Harrani olması muhtemeldir. İsim tanımlamayı kesinleştirir ve El Battani’nin astronomik aletler yapma konusundaki yeteneği, bu becerileri babasından öğrendiğinin iyi bir göstergesidir.

El Battani, ileri düzeydeki astronomi çalışmalarını Antakya ve Rakka’da yaptı. Battani’nin gözlemlerinin çoğunun yapıldığı Rakka kasabası, 14 Eylül 786’da Abbasi hanedanlığının beşinci halifesi olan Harun el Reşid’in orada birkaç saray inşa etmesiyle zenginleşti. El Battani orada gözlemlerine başlamadan önce kasaba o zamanlarda el-Reşid olarak yeniden adlandırılmıştı ve sonra Rakka adına geri döndü. Kasaba, Harran’ın bulunduğu Balikh Nehrinin batısında yer alan Fırat Nehri üzerindeydi.

Fihrist (Dizin), kitapçı İbni Nadim tarafından 988 yılında derlenen bir çalışmaydı. 10. yüzyılda mevcut olan Arap edebiyatının tam bir açıklamasını veriyor ve bu edebiyatın bazı yazarlarını kısaca anlatıyordu. Fihrist’te El Battani’yi şöyle tarif eder ([1]):

… ünlü gözlemcilerden biridir. Geometri, teorik ve pratik astronomi ve astrolojide bir öncüdür. Astronomi çalışmaları için oluşturduğu tablolarında, Güneş ve Ay’ın hareketlerini Batlamyus’un Almagest’inden çok daha doğru bir şekilde anlatır. Dahası, beş gezegenin hareketlerini, yapmayı başardığı gözlemlerle ve diğer gerekli astronomik hesaplamalarla da anlatır. Tablolarının yer aldığı kitabındaki gözlemlerinin bir kısmı 880 ve daha sonra 900 yılında yapılmıştır. İslam’da, yıldızları gözlemleme ve hareketlerini inceleme konusunda benzer mükemmelliğe ulaşan kimse bilinmemektedir. Bunun dışında, astrolojiye büyük ilgi duyması, daha önce bahsettiğim Batlamyus’un Tetrabiblos’u üzerine yaptığı yorumları onu bu alanda yazmaya yöneltti.

Fihrist’te yer alan El Battani ile ilgili diğer bilgiler ise gözlemleri 877 ile 918 yılları arasında yaptığı ve yıldız kataloğunun 880 yılına dayandığıdır. Fihrist, Rakka halkının haksız vergiye tabi tutulmasını protesto etmek için Bağdat’a yaptığı yolculukta Battani’nin vefatını da anlatır. Daha doğrusu; Battani, Bağdat’a ulaşıp fikirlerini sunduktan sonra Rakka’ya dönüşünde hayatını kaybetmiştir. Fihrist, ayrıca El Battani’nin bir dizi eserinden de alıntı yapıyor. Daha önce de bahsedilen astronomi çalışmaları hakkındaki tablolara yer verilen en büyük eseri sayılan Kitabü’l Zic vardır. Bunu birazdan daha detaylı inceleyeceğiz. Ayrıca, Batlamyus’un Tetrabiblos’u hakkındaki yukarıda ve diğer iki başlıkta sözü edilen yorum vardır: Zodyak burçlarının yükselişleri ve astrolojik uygulamaların miktarları hakkındadır. Kitabü’l Zic’in bölümlerinden biri “Zodyak burçlarının yükselişleri üzerine” başlığına sahiptir ve bu nedenle Fihrist bunun ayrı bir çalışma olduğunu düşünerek yanılıyor olabilir. Bu nokta hala net değildir.

El Battani’nin Kitabü’l Zic’i bugüne kadarki en önemli eseridir ve kapsadığı konuları kısaca ele almalıyız. Gök kürenin zodyak burçlarına ve derecelere bölünmesinin açıklamasıyla başlayan eser 57 bölümden oluşuyordu. Altmışlık kesirler üzerindeki aritmetik işlemler ve trigonometrik fonksiyonlar gibi gerekli matematiksel araçlar daha sonra tanıtıldı. 4. Bölüm, El Battani’nin kendi gözlemlerindeki verileri içermektedir. 5’ten 26’ya kadar olan bölümler, Almagest’ten gelen materyalleri bir dereceye kadar takip eden çok sayıda farklı astronomi problemini irdeliyor. Güneş’in, Ay’ın ve beş gezegenin hareketleri 27 ila 31. bölümlerde tartışılmaktadır, bu bölümlerde anlatılan teori Batlamyus’a aittir, ancak El Battani için teori pratik yönlerden daha az önemli görünmektedir.

Bir dönemde hesaplanan verinin diğer dönemdekine çevrilmesini sağlayacak sonuçları gösterdikten sonra, El Battani, tablolarının nasıl okunacağını 16 bölümde açıklıyor. 49’dan 55’e kadar olan bölümler astrolojideki sorunları kapsarken, 56. bölüm bir güneş saatinin yapımını ve son bölüm birtakım astronomi aletinin yapımını ele alıyor. El Battani’nin Zic’inin temel başarıları nelerdir peki?

489 yıldızı katalogladı, yıl uzunluğu için mevcut değerleri 365 gün 5 saat 46 dakika 24 saniye olarak yeniden buldu. Ekinoksların yıllık devinimini 54.5 ” olarak hesapladı ve ekliptiğin eğimi için 23 35 ‘değerini elde etti. El Battani, Batlamyus gibi geometrik yöntemleri kullanmak yerine, büyük bir ilerlemeye kapı açan trigonometrik yöntemleri kullandı. Örneğin, dik açılı üçgenler için bsin(A) = asin(90 – A) gibi önemli trigonometrik formüller verdi.

El Battani, Dünya’nın Güneş’e olan en uzak mesafenin değişiklik gösterdiğini ve bu yüzden de Güneş’in halka şeklindeki tutulmalarının tam tutulmalar kadar mümkün olduğunu gösterdi. Ancak Swerdlow’un işaret ettiği üzere[8], Batlamyus’un ortaçağ yazarları üzerinde oldukça güçlü bir etkisi vardı. Hatta El Battani gibi parlak bir bilim adamı bile Batlamyus’un bulduğu Dünya ve Güneş arasındaki mesafenin farklı olduğunu muhtemelen iddia etmedi. El Battani kendi yaptığı gözlemleriyle çok daha farklı bir sonuç elde edebilecek olmasına rağmen durum böyleydi.

[1] Hartner, El Battani’nin Batlamyus’tan etkilenme olayına biraz daha farklı bir fikir sunuyor:

El Battani, Batlamyus kinematiğine genel olarak eleştirel bir tavır sergilemezken, onun uygulamalı sonuçlarına ilişkin çok sağlam bir şüpheciliği kanıtlıyor. Bu yüzden, kendi gözlemlerine dayanarak Batlamyus’un hatalarını -dolaylı ya da açık bir şekilde- düzeltir. Bu, ekliptiğin veya güneş apojisinin eğikliğinin değişmezliği gibi yetersiz veya hatalı gözlemlerden çıkarılan hatalı sonuçlardan daha az olmayan gezegen hareketinin ana değişkenleriyle ilgilidir.

El Battani, bilimin ilerlemesinde birçok farklı nedenden ötürü önemli bir rol oynamıştır. Bunlardan birisi ise Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo ve Kopernik gibi büyük bilim adamlarını oldukça etkilemiştir. El Battani’nin Güneş’in hareketleri konusunda Kopernik’ten nasıl çok daha kesin ölçümler yaptığı [5]’te tartışılmıştır. Yazar, El Battani’nin çok daha kesin sonuçlar elde etmesini gözlemlerinin daha güneyde yapılmasıyla açıklamıştır. El Battani’ye göre kış gündönümünde güneş ışınlarındaki kırılmanın, meridyen gözlemlerinde küçük bir etkisi vardır. Çünkü, Rakka’nın daha güney taraflarında Güneş daha yüksekteydi. El Battani’nin Kitabü’l Zic’i Latince’ye De motu stellarum (Yıldızların Hareketi Üzerine) olarak Plato Tiburtinus tarafından çevrilmiştir. Kitap 1116’da bulunmuştur ve Latince çevirisi ise 1537 ve sonra yeniden 1645’te ortaya çıkmıştır. İspanyolca çevirisi ise 13. yüzyılda yapılmıştır ve ikisi de bugüne dek ayakta kalmıştır.

çeviri kaynak: Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (ed. W. Hazmy C.H., Zainurashid Z., Hussaini R.) s. 33-38

Kaynakça:

1. Biography in Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970-1990).

2. Biography in Encyclopaedia Britannica.

3. Al-Battani, Encylopedia of Islam (Leiden, 1960).

4. P Kunitzsch, New light on al-Battani’s Zij, Centaurus 18 (1973/74), 270-274.

5. Y Maeyama, Determination of the Sun’s orbit (Hipparchus, Ptolemy, al-

Battani, Copernicus, Tycho Brahe), Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 53 (1) (1998), 1-49.

6. K Maghout, al-Battani : un grand astronome et mathématicien arabe, Bull.

Etudes Orient. 41(42) (1989/90), 55-58.

7. F J Ragep, Al-Battani, cosmology, and the early history of trepidation in

Islam, in From Baghdad to Barcelona, Zaragoza, 1993 I, II (Barcelona, 1996),

267-298.

8. N Swerdlow, Al-Battani ‘s determination of the solar distance, Centaurus 17

(2) (1972), 97-105.

EL BATTANİ KİMDİR?

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