Ebu’l-Abbas Ahmed ibn Muhammed ibn Kesir el-Fergani (? – 861)

Ebu’l-Abbas Ahmed ibn Muhammed ibn Kesir el-Fergani, Fergana, Maveraunnehirde doğmuş, El-Me’mûn ve onun haleflerine hizmette bulunmuş en seçkin astronomlardan biriydi. (Batıdaki ismi: Alfraganus, Ay’daki “Alfraganus” kraterinin ismi O’na ithafen verilmiştir)

Yazmış olduğu “Astronominin Elementleri” (Kitâb fi’l-ḥarekâti’s-semâviyye ve cevâmiʿu ʿilmi’n-nücûm mealen; göksel hareket ve ayrıntılı yıldız bilimi kitabı) 12. yüzyılda Latince’ye çevrildi ve *Regiomontanus’dan önce Avrupa astronomisi üzerinde büyük etkisi oldu. Batlamyus’un teorisini ve devinim değerini kabul etti ama aslında bu yalnızca yıldızları değil ayrıca gezegenleri de etkiliyordu. Dünyanın çapını **6,500 mil olarak belirledi ve azami uzaklıkları ve gezegenlerin çaplarını keşfetti.

Fergani’nin faaliyetleri mühendisliğe doğru genişledi. İbn Tağriberdi’ye göre, Fustat’daki (Eski Kahire) Büyük Nilometre’nin inşaatını yönetti. İnşaatın yapımı, inşaat emrini veren Calip el-Mütevekkil ’in öldüğü yıl olan 861’de tamamlandı. Ama İbn Ebi Usaybia tarafından aşağıda anlatılan hikâyeden de anlaşıldığı üzere, mühendislik Fergani’nin asıl uzmanlık alanı değildi.

Mütevekkil Musa İbn Şakir’in iki oğlu Muhammed ve Ahmed’i, El-Caferi adı verilen bir kanalın açımını yönetmek için görevlendirdi. Onlar da böylece bile bile daha iyi bir mühendis olan mesleki kıskançlıktan uzak Sind İbn Ali’yi görmezden gelip Fergani’yi göreve getirerek, onun Bağdat’a, Mütevekkil ‘in Samarra’daki sarayından uzağa gönderilmesine sebep oldular. Kanal yeni şehrin içinden geçecek, Tigris’te Samarra’ya yakın, adını Mütevekkil’den alan El-Caferiyya’da inşa edilecekti. Fergani kanalın başını geri kalanından daha derin yaparak bir kazı hatası yaptı, bu sebeple Tigris yüksekte olmadığı zaman yeterli su kanal uzunluğu boyunca akmıyordu. Bu haber Calib’i sinirlendirdi ve iki kardeş şiddetli cezalardan Sind ibn Ali’nin, kendi refahını ve muhtemelen hayatını riske atmak pahasına, içten bir gönüllülükle Fergani’nin hesaplamalarının doğruluğuna kefil olması sayesinde kurtuldular. Ancak, müneccimler tarafından yapılan doğru tahmin üzere, hata açıkça ortaya çıkmadan biraz evvel Mütevekkil öldürüldü. Bir inşaatı asla başarıyla tamamlayamayan Fergani’nin hatası için yapılan açıklama onun tecrübeli bir mühendisten ziyade bir teorisyen olmasıydı.

987’de yazılan İbn Nedim’in Fihristinde Fergani’nin iki çalışmasına ithafta bulunulur: (1) “Bölümler Kitabı, ***Almagest ’in bir özeti.” (Kitabe’l Fusûl, El-İhtiyar) ve (2)“Güneş Saatlerinin İnşası Kitabı” (Kitab-ı ‘Amel el-Rukamet) Cevami, ya da bizim de dediğimiz gibi ‘Elementler’ Fergani’nin en bilindik ve tesirli çalışmasıdır. Abd el-Aziz el-Gabisi (ö. 967) onun üzerine İstanbul elyazmalarında, Ayasofya 4832, syf. 97-114, muhafaza edilen bir tefsir yazdı. 12. yüzyılda bunu iki Latince çeviri izledi. Jacob Anatoli’nin yaptığı İbranice çeviri, 1590’da tezahür eden üçüncü Latince tercümesi bir temel olarak işlev görmesine karşılık Jacob Golius yeni bir Latince metni Arapça orijinaliyle birlikte 1669’da yayınladı. Elementler ’in Ortaçağ Avrupası’ndaki etkisine Avrupa kütüphanelerindeki sayısız Latince elyazmasının varlığı açıkça kanıt gösterilebilir.

Orta Çağ yazarları tarafından yapılan çok atıf var ve şüphe yok ki Batlamyus astronomisi bilgisinin yayılmasında, en azından Sacrobosco Küresi tarafından bu rol devralınana kadar, oldukça büyük bir rolü var. Ama o zaman bile Fergani’nin ‘Elementler’ ‘i kullanılmaya devam edildi ve Sacrobosco’nun Küre’si açıkça ona borçludur. Dante’nin ****‘Vita nouva’ ve ‘Convivio’ da sergilediği astronomik bilgi ‘Elementler’ den (Gherard’ın çevirisinde) alınmıştır.

çeviri kaynak: Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (ed. W. Hazmy C.H., Zainurashid Z., Hussaini R.) s. 39-41

Ç.N:

*Regiomontanus: Johannes Müller von Königsberg, Alman Rönesans’ının bilindik bir matematikçi, astrolog ve astronomudur.

**6.500 mil = 10.460,736 kilometredir.

***Almagest: Batlamyus’un Astronomi ve Matematik üzerine Yunanca yazdığı bir eser.

****Vita nouva: Yeni Yaşam

EL FERGANİ KİMDİR?

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