Muhammed bin Zekeriya er-Razi (MÖ 864-930)

Ebu Bekir Muhammed bin Zekeriya er-Razi İran’ın Rey şehrinde doğdu. Önceleri müzikle ilgilendi fakat antik Yunanca, İran ve Hindistan tıp sistemleri ile diğer konularda ustalaşan Razi daha sonra Huneyn İbn İshak’ın bir öğrencisinden tıp, matematik, astronomi, kimya ve felsefe dersleri aldı. Ayrıca Ali ibn Rabban’ın yanında çalıştı.

Meşhur Muktadari hastanesine kazandığı tecrübe ona tıp alanındaki meslek seçimine yardım etti. Asya‘dan uzak bölgelerden gelen hastalar ve öğrenciler ona genç yaşında bir tıp ve simya uzmanı olarak itibar kazandırdı.

İlk olarak Ray’daki ilk Kraliyet Hastanesinde görevli olan Razi daha sonra Bağdat’ta benzer bir pozisyona getirildi ve burada uzun süre Muktadari hastanesinin başında kaldı. Zaman zaman özellikle Ray ve Bağdat arasında birçok şehre gitti, en sonunda Ray’a geri döndü ve burada yaklaşık MÖ 930 yılında yaşamını yitirdi. İsmi, Tahran şehrinin yakınındaki Razi Enstitüsüne verildi.

Razi; Hakim, simyacı ve filozoftur. Onun tıp alanındaki katkıları o kadar önemlidir ki sadece İbn Sina ile kıyaslanabilir. Razi’nin Kitab al-Mansoori, al-Hawi, Kitab al-Judari wa al-Hasabah adlı tıp kitapları ona ebedi bir ün kazandırmıştır. MÖ 15. yüzyılda Latinceye çevrilen ve Yunan-Arap tıbbıyla kapsamlı bir şekilde ilgilenen eseri Kitab al-Mansoori on ciltten oluşur. Kitabın bazı bölümleri Avrupa’da ayrı bir şekilde yayımlanmıştır. Onun Kitab al-Judari wa al-Hasabah adlı eseri, çiçek hastalığı ve kızamığa dair ilk incelemeydi ve bu kitap büyük ölçüde Razi’nin kendi özgün katkısına dayanır: Kitap birçok Avrupa diline çevrilmiştir. Böylece bu incelemeyle çiçek hastalığı ve kızamık arasındaki kıyaslamayı belirgin bir şekilde yapan ilk kişi olmuş oldu. Al-Hawi, o zamana kadar yazılmış en büyük tıp ansiklopedisiydi. Kitap, Yunan ve Arap kaynaklarda mevcut olan bütün önemli tıbbi konuları kapsıyordu ve kitap Razi’nin kendi görüşlerine ve deneyimlerine dayanarak bir sonuca bağlanıyordu. Onun tıbbi sisteminin özel bir özelliği de uygun ve düzenlenmiş yiyeceklerle olan tedaviyi tercih etmesiydi. Bu, psikolojik faktörlerin sağlık üzerindeki etkisine vurgusuyla birleştirildi. Ayrıca etkilerini ve yan etkilerini görmek için ilk önce hayvanlar üzerinde önerilen ilaçları denedi. Fahreddin er-Razi aynı zamanda uzman bir cerrah ve anesteziyi ilk kez kullanan kişidir.

Doktor olmasına ek olarak ilaç üretti ve daha sonraki yıllarında kendini deneysel ve pratik bilime verdi. Bu Razi’nin kimyasını Cabir bin Hayyan’dan bağımsız bir şekilde geliştiği olarak anlaşılabilir. O, pek çok önemli kimyasal tepkimelerdeki detayları tasvir etti ve kimyasal araştırmalarda kullanılan yaklaşık yirmi tane aletin tasarımlarını ve tanımlamalarını verdi. Onun kimyasal bilgi tanımlamaları açık ve anlaşılır bir dildedir. Kitab-al Asrar adlı kitabı kimyasal materyallerin hazırlanması ve bunların kullanılması ile ilgilidir. Latinceye Liber Experimentorum adıyla tercüme edilen bir diğer eserinde maddeleri bitkilere, hayvanlara ve minerallere ayırmanın ötesine geçti böylece organik ve inorganik kimyanın önünü açtı. Genel olarak, bu üç sınıflandırma hala geçerlidir. Bir kimyacı olarak, sülfürük asiti bazı diğer asitlerle üreten ilk kişiydi ve ayrıca tatlı ürünleri fermente ederek alkol hazırladı.

Bir filozof olarak katkıları da ayrıca iyi bilinmektedir. Onun felsefi sistemindeki temel elementleri yaratıcı, ruh, uzay ve zamandır. O, bunların özelliklerini detaylı tartışmıştır ve onun bir süreklilik oluşturan uzay ve zaman kavramları ayrıca göze çarpmaktadır. Onun felsefi görüşleri dönemin diğer Müslüman alimleri tarafından eleştirilmiştir.

Razi, pek çok konuda hatırlanacak eserler bırakan üretken bir yazardı. Bilimsel alandaki saygınlığını artıracak yaklaşık yarısı tıpla, yirmi biri simyayla ilgili iki yüzden fazla kitaba sahiptir. Ayrıca fizik, matematik, astronomi ve optik alanlarında günümüze kadar gelememiş eserler de yazmıştır. Birçok Avrupa diline çevrilmiş bazı kitapları şunlardır; Jami-fi-al-Tib, Mansoori, al-Hawi, Kitab al-Jadari wa al-Hasabah, al-Malooki, Maqalah fi al- Hasat fi Kuli wa al-Mathana, Kitab al-Qalb, Kitab al-Mafasil, Kitab-al- ‘Ilaj al-Ghoraba, Bar al-Sa’ah ve al-Taqseem wa al-Takhsir. El yazmalarından yaklaşık kırk tanesi İran, Paris, Britanya, Rampur ve Bankipurdaki müzelerde ve kütüphanlerde hala varlığını sürdürüyor. Fahreddim er-Razi’nin katkıları; bilimdeki gelişmeleri, özellikle tıp alanını çok etkilemiştir

Kaynak:

Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (ed. W. Hazmy C.H., Zainurashid Z., Hussaini R.) s. 42-44

ER RAZİ KİMDİR?

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