EBU ABDULLAH MUHAMMED BİN MUSA EL HAREZMİ (? – 850)

Ebû Abdullah Muhammed bin Musâ el-Hârizmî, Aral Gölü’nün güneyindeki Hârizm(Hive)’de dünyaya gelmiştir. Anne-babasının Bağdat’ın güneyindeki bir yere göç etmesi dışında hayatının ilk yılları hakkında pek az şey bilinmektedir. Doğum ve ölüm tarihi kesin olarak bilinmemekle birlikte, Bağdat’ta 813-833 yıllarında Me’mûn döneminde yetiştiği belirlenmiştir ve 840 yıllarında vefat ettiği tahmin edilmektedir. Muhammed bin Musâ el-Hârizmî’nin 1200. doğum yıl dönümünde SSCB Harezmi adına posta pulu yayınlamıştır

(Rusya’nın Harizmi adına bastırdığı posta pulu)

Cebir (algebra) ve algoritma terimlerine hepimiz aşinayızdır. Ama bu kavramların kurucusu olan Muhammed el-Hârizmî’yi kaçımız duyduk? Coğrafyada Batlamyus’un görüşlerini revize etmiş ve 830 yılında bilinen dünyanın haritasını çıkarmıştır. Dünyanın hacminin ve çevresinin hesaplanması üzerine çalışıp güneş saatleri ve usturlap gibi ölçüm aletleri ile ilgili çalışmalar üzerine katkı sağlamıştır.

Hayatı

Ebu Abdullah Muhammed bin Musâ el-Hârizmî. En son gelen ismi, doğduğu yer olan, Aral Gölü’nün güneyindeki Hârizm’i (şimdiki Hive) işaret eder. 780 yılı civarında Hârizm bölgesindeki, şimdi kuma gömülü olan Kath kasabasında dünyaya gelmiştir. 850 yılı civarında ölmüştür. Halife Me’mûn tarafından Bağdat’a çağırılıp saray astronomu olarak görevlendirilmiştir. Algebra-cebir, Hisab al-Jabr wal Muqabalah (Cebir ve Sadeleştirme Hesabı) adlı eserinin isminden türemiştir.

Cebir, Batı kültürünün Müslüman matematikçilere olan borcunu simgeliyor. Gariptir ki cebir İngilizceye ilk geçtiğinde kırık kemikler dizisi, hatta kırığın kendisi için kullanılıyordu. Bu, cebir (al-jabr) kelimesinin kökü olarak ‘’cabara-birleşme’’den gelen ‘’kırık kemiklerin birleşmesi’’ için kullanılan kelimeden gelir. Anatomik çağrışımlar bu kelimeye İspanyolca, İtalyanca ve Ortaçağ Latincesine arasında birbirine ilk olarak geçtiğindeki haliyle algebra olarak kullanılmış ve İngilizceye de o şekilde geçmiştir. Arapça’da ise daha öncesinden uzun zamandır cebirsel denklemlerin çözümü için kullanılmıştır. Tam Arapça ifadesi ‘‘ilmü’l-cebr ve’l-mukābele’’ yani  ‘’Birleşme ve denklemler ilmi’’. Matematikçi Harezmi el-cebir kelimesini cebir-algebra üzerine yazdığı eserin başlığı olarak kullanmıştır. On ikinci yüzyılda Cremonalı Gerard ve Chesterli Roberts Cebir’i Latinceye çevirdi. Tüm dünyada matematikçiler bu eseri on altıncı yüzyıla kadar kullanmıştır. Müslüman aritmetik yazısının Latince bir çevirisi 1857’de Cambridge Üniversitesi kütüphanesinde bulunmuştur. ‘’Algoritimi de Numero Indorum’’ isimli eser, şu kelimelerle başlar: ‘’Algoritma konuştu. Önderimiz ve koruyucumuz olan Tanrımıza hak ettiği övgüyü verelim.’’

Söz konusu yazının, Hârizmî’nin aritmetik yazılarının Bathli Adelard (İngiliz bilgin, Adelard of Bath) tarafından 12. yüzyılda çevrilen bir kopyası olduğu düşünülmektedir. Hârizmî, ismini matematik tarihine ‘’Algorizm’’ (Aritmetiğin eski adı) olarak bıraktı.

Çalışmaları

Hârizmî matematikçi, astronom ve coğrafyacıydı. Belki gelmiş geçmiş en iyi matematikçilerden biriydi. Hatta kendisi pek çok branşın ve temel matematik konseptinin kurucusuydu. Phillip Hitti’nin sözleriyle ‘’O, matematiksel düşünceyi diğer herhangi bir Orta Çağ yazarından daha çok etkiledi.’’

Cebir üzerine yaptığı çalışmalar, konuyu sistematik bir biçimde başlatmakla kalmayıp aynı zamanda onu Cebir’in kurucusu olarak belirleyen doğrusal ve ikinci dereceden denklemlerin analitik çözümlerini verecek ölçüde geliştirdiği için olağanüstü idi. Hisab el-cebr ve’l-mukābele birinci ve ikinci dereceden denklemlerin analitik çözümlerini içerir ve dolayısıyla yazarı, geometriden farklı olarak analiz ve cebirin kurucularından biri olarak adlandırılabilir. Aynı zamanda ikinci dereceden denklemlerin şekillerle geometrik çözümlerini de verir. Örneğin X2+10x=39 denklemi daha sonra sıklıkla diğer yazarlar tarafından tekrarlanmıştır. ‘’Liber ysagogarum Alchorismi in artem astronomicam a magistro A. [Adelard of Bath] compositus!’’  adlı eser aritmeti, geometri, müzik ve astronomiyi içerir ve orijinal bir çalışma olmanın aksine, muhtemelen Hârizmî’nin öğretilerinin özeti olan bir kopyasıdır.

Hârizmî’nin astronomi ve trigonometri tabloları Mesleme el-Mecrîtî (10. yüzyılın ikinci yarısı) tarafından gözden geçirilip düzenlenmiştir, 1226 gibi erken bir tarihte Bathli Adelard tarafından Latinceye çevrilmiştir. Bu tablolar ilk Müslüman çalışması tablolardı ve sadece sinüs fonksiyonunu değil, aynı zamanda (Mesleme el-Mecrîtî’nin eklemesiyle) tanjant fonksiyonunu da içermektedir.

Onun aritmetiği, Yunan ve Hindu bilgilerini sentezledi ve ayrıca matematik ve bilimde temel öneme sahip olan kendi katkılarını da içeriyordu. Böylece, Araplar tarafından geliştirilen, temel bir öneme sahip bir rakam olan sıfırın kullanımını açıkladı.

Benzer şekilde, ondalık sistemi geliştirdi. Böylece genel sayı sistemi ‘’algoritma’’ ya da ‘’algorizm’’ onun adını aldı. Hint sayı sistemini (şimdi genel olarak Arap rakamları olarak bilinir) tanıtmanın yanı sıra, kesirler üzerinde işlemler de dahil olmak üzere uzun uzadıya birkaç aritmetik prosedür de geliştirdi.

Rakamlar sisteminin Avrupa dillerindeki tercümeleri yoluyla önce Araplara ve daha sonra Avrupa’ya tanıtılması onun çalışmaları sayesinde oldu. Mecrîtî tarafından sinüs fonksiyonlarına eklenen tanjant fonksiyonlarını içeren ayrıntılı trigonometrik tablolar geliştirdi. Ayrıca konik bölümlerin geometrik temsilini mükemmelleştirdi ve pratikte onu farklılaşma kavramına götüren iki hatanın hesabını geliştirdi. Ayrıca Me’mûn tarafından istenen ve dünyanın hacmini ve çevresini ölçmeyi amaçlayan derece ölçümlerinde katkı verdiği bildirildi.

Kitapları

Pek çok kitabı 12. yüzyılın başlarında Latinceye çevrilmiştir. Aritmetik üzerine olan kitabın (Kitab Al-Jam’a wal-Tafreeq) Arapçası kaybolmuş, Latince çevirisiyle ayakta kalmıştır. Astronomi tabloları da Avrupa dillerine, daha sonra da Çinceye çevrilmiştir. Kitab Surat-Al-Ard (Yerin yüzü -yeryüzü- kitabı) başlıklı coğrafya kitabı haritalarıyla birlikte çevrilmiştir. Ayrıca Istikhraj Tarikh Al-Yahud adındaki Yahudi takvimi üzerine kitabını, usturlap (astrolabe) üzerine 2 kitap yazmıştır. Ayrıca Kitab Al-Tarikh ve güneş saatleri üzerine olan Kitab Al-Rukhmat adlı kitabı yazmıştır. Ama her iki kitap da kayıptır.

Allah’ın Kulu ve Hizmetçisi

Hârizmî, cebir kitabını; miras, vasiyet, bölüşme, hukuk davaları ve ticaret konularında halkın pratik ihtiyaçlarına hizmet etmesi için yazdığını vurgulamıştır. Yaptığı işi Allah’a ibadet olarak görmüştür.

Hârizmî’den Alıntı

Bilime olan bu düşkünlük, … Allah’ın bilgine gösterdiği yakınlık ve lütuf, bu sürat, O’nun koruması ve bilinmezlerin izahında, zorlukların kaldırılmasında desteklemesi; beni cebir ve mukabele ile hesaplama üzerine kısa bir çalışma yazmaya, aritmetikte en kolay ve en kullanışlı biçime sınırlandırmaya teşvik etti.

orjinal metin: Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (ed. W. Hazmy C.H., Zainurashid Z., Hussaini R.) s. 8-12.

HARİZMİ KİMDİR?

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