İBN BAYTAR (1197-1248)

Abdullah bin Ahmed el-Baytar, Müslüman İspanya’nın en büyük bilim adamlarındandı. Aynı zamanda orta çağın en büyük botanikçi ve eczacısıydı. 12. Yüzyılın sonlarına doğru İspanya’nın Mâlaga şehrinde doğdu. Botaniği, beraber İspanya ve çevresinde çiçek topladığı Ebu el-Abbas al-Nabati’den öğrendi.

1219’da İspanya’yı bitki toplama seferine çıkmak üzere terk etti ve Afrika’nın kuzey kıyısı boyunca Anadolu’ya kadar seyahat etti. Seyahati için tercih ettiği yol ve vasıta (deniz ya da kara yolu) kesin olarak bilinmemekle beraber ziyaret ettiği büyük duraklardan bazıları Béjaïa, Konstantin, Tunus, Trablus, Barka, Antalya’dır. 1224’ten sonra bitki uzmanı şefi olarak Mısırlı vali El-Kamil’in emrine girdi. El-Kamil 1227’de egemenliğini Şam’a kadar genişletti ve İbn Baytar da ona eşlik etti. İbn Baytar böylece Suriye’de bitki toplama şansını elde etmiş oldu. İbn Baytar’ın bitkiler üzerine araştırmaları Arabistan ve Filistin’i de içeren geniş alanlara yayıldı. İbn Baytar 1248’de Şam’da vefat etti.

İbn Baytar’ın başlıca katkısı Kitab el-Cami’fi el-Adviyye el-Müfredah, tedavi edici bitkiler hakkındaki en büyük derlemelerden biridir. Kitap, eski yazılara eleştiriler içerdiği kadar özgün katkılara da sahiptir ve 16. Yüzyılın sonuna kadar botanikçiler arasında popülerliğini korumuştur. 200’ü önceden bilinmeyen bitki türü olmak üzere 1400 madde içermektedir. 150 Arap, 20 Yunan yazara ve eserlerine de değinmektedir. 1758’de Latinceye çevirilmiştir.

Anıtsal denilebilecek ikinci eseri el-Muġnî fi’l-edviyeti’l-müfrede bir ilaç ansiklopedisidir. Eserde ilaçlar tedavi edici özelliklerine göre listelenmiştir. Dolayısıyla kitabın göz, kulak, baş vs. hastalıkları hakkında önem taşıyan bitkileri içeren 20 farklı bölümü vardır. Cerrahi meselelerde, ünlü Müslüman cerrah Ebu’l Kasım El-Zehravi’den alıntılar yapmıştır. İbn Baytar bitkilere Arapça dışında Yunanca ve Latince adlarını da vermiş, dolayısıyla bilginin aktarımını kolaylaştırmıştır.

İbn Baytar’ın çalışmalarının karakterize özellikleri gözlem, analiz ve sınıflandırmadır. Bu çalışmalar doğu ve batıda botanik ve tıp ilimlerini derin etkilemiştir. Her ne kadar Kitab el-Cami batı dillerine geç tercüme edilmiş olsa da birçok bilim insanı bu tercümelerden önce kitabın çeşitli bölümlerini okumuş ve öğrendiklerine çalışmalarında yer vermişlerdir.

orjinal metin: Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (W. Hazmy C.H.Zainurashid Z.Hussaini R.)  syf: 109-110

İBN BAYTAR KİMDİR?

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