AHZAP 53 İDDİALARI

Ateist, deist forum sitelerinde tartışmaya sebep olan ayetlerden biri de ahzap 53 ayetidir. Önce söz konusu ayete bakalım;

Ey iman edenler! Siz zamanını gözetlemeksizin, bir yemeğe davet edilmedikçe Peygamber’in evlerine girmeyin, ancak davet edildiğiniz vakit girin. Yemeği yediğinizde hemen dağılın, sohbete dalmayın. Çünkü bu hareketiniz Peygamber’i üzmekte, fakat o (size bunu söylemekten) utanmaktadır. Ama Allah hakkı söylemekten çekinmez. Peygamber’in hanımlarından bir şey istediğiniz zaman perde arkasından isteyin. Bu hem sizin kalpleriniz, hem de onların kalpleri için daha temiz bir davranıştır. Sizin Allah’ın Rasul’üne rahatsızlık vermeniz ve kendisinden sonra onun hanımlarını nikahlamanız, asla caiz olmaz. Çünkü bu, Allah katında büyük (bir günah) tır. (ahzap 53)

Söz konusu ayette iddia sahiplerinin eleştirdiği iki kısım var;

1)Peygamber vefat ettikten sonra hanımları ile evlenilememesi

2)Peygamberin evine izinsiz girilmemesi, yemek yenildikten sonra ise dağılmaları, peygamberi rahatsız etmemeleri

görsel semboliktir

İlk iddia ile başlayalım; peygamber hanımları ile neden evlenilmez? Ateist, deistlerin de iddia ettiği gibi bunun sebebi peygamberin aşırı kıskanç biri olması mı?

Peygamberden sonra hanımları ile neden  evlenilmez sorusu daha çok bilgisizlikten kaynaklanmaktadır. Peygamberimiz vefat ettikten sonra hanımları ile nikah kıymak yasaktır zira peygamber hanımları Müslümanların manevi anneleri sayılır. Nitekim bildiğiniz gibi zaman zaman hz.Ayşe, hz.Hatice’den “Aişe anamız” veya “Hatice annemiz” diye bahsederiz.

Peygamber, mü’minlere kendi canlarından daha önce gelir. Onun eşleri de mü’minlerin analarıdır. Aralarında akrabalık bağı olanlar, Allah’ın Kitab’ına göre, (miras konusunda) birbirleri için (diğer) mü’minlerden ve muhacirlerden daha önceliklidirler. Ancak dostlarınıza bir iyilik yapmanız başka. Bu (hüküm) Kitap’ta yazılıdır.(ahzap 6)

Buna göre müslümanlar, annelerini nikahlayamadıkları gibi, kendileri için manevi anne konumunda olan peygamber hanımlarını da nikahlayamazlar. Öz annelerine hürmet göstermek mecburiyetinde oldukları gibi onlara da aynı şekilde hürmet göstermelidirler.

Bunun yanında; peygamber vefat ettikten sonra, hanımlarıyla evlenilmesi müslümanlar arasında bir siyasi güç gibi görülebilir, bir rekabet haline getirilebilirdi. Peygamber hanımları ile evlenen kişiler de dinde özel bir konumu olduğunu iddia edebilirdi. Bu yasak ile bu tür sorunların da önüne geçilmiş oluyor.

İkinci iddia geçelim; Neden yemek yedikten sonra sohbete dalmayın, kendi evlerinize dağılın deniliyor? İddia sahiplerinin de dediği gibi peygamber bu ayeti kendi rahatı için mi uydurdu?

Şöyle ki; evin içi kişinin mahrem alanıdır. Komşularınıza, arkadaşlarınıza veya akrabalarınıza misafir olarak tabiki de gidebilirsiniz ama bu, misafir gittiğiniz evi kendi eviniz gibi gibi kullanacağınız, o eve izinsiz girip çıkabileceğiniz anlamına gelmiyor. Bu insanlara rahmet olarak gelmiş ve “hayır” demeye utanan, çekinen bir peygamberin evi bile olsa böyle bir hakkınız olduğu anlamına gelmiyor. Ayetin nüzul sebeplerine baktığımızda ise böyle bir sorun olduğunu görüyoruz. İbnü Abbas’tan gelen bir rivayete göre; birtakım kimseler zaman zaman Resulullah(asm)’ın evinde yemek yerdi. Bunlar bazen, yemekten önce yemeğe kadar bekliyorlar, yemekten sonra da hemen çıkıp gitmiyorlar, kısacası kendi evleri gibi kullanıyorlardı.(1) Böyle bir durumdan tabiki de eşi, çocuğu olan her ev sahibi rahatsız olur ve en doğal hakkıdır.

Tabiki bunu yapma niyetleri kötü değildi, peygamberi ailelerinin bir parçası ve ona olan yakınlığı ise bir şeref olarak görürdü sahabe. Ama peygambere olan bu sevgi ve saygının mahrem alanını işgal edecek kadar ileriye gitmemesi lazım. Karşımızda bir peygamber olduğunu bildiğimiz gibi yorulan, uyuyan, dinlenmek isteyen bir insan olduğu gerçeğini de unutmamak lazım. Nitekim böyle bir uyarı olmasaydı “Peygamber müminlere canlarından ileridir. Onun eşleri de müminlerin anneleridir.” (Ahzab 6) ayetinden bazı müslümanlar Resulullah (asm)’ın evine kendi evleri gibi izin almaksızın girmenin caiz olduğunu düşünebilirdi. İşte bu ayet hem böyle bir zanna yer olmadığını anlatıyor.

Ayetin evrensel yönüne gelecek olursak;

Peygamber üzerinden anlatılan misafirlikteki edep ve kurallar tabiki de her müslüman için geçerli. Peygamberin evini rahatça kullanamayacağımız gibi misafirliğe gittiğimiz herhangi bir şahsın evini de bu şekilde kullanamayız. Nitekim benzer bir uyarı nur 27 bütün insanlar için de yapılmıştır;

Ey iman edenler! Kendi evlerinizden başka evlere izin alıp sahiplerine selam vermeden girmeyin (Nur 27)

İlgili ayeti peygamberin kendi rahatı için uydurduğu kısmı ise peygamberin hayatına baktığımızda çok absürt bir iddia olarak kalmaktadır. Zira kendi rahatını düşünen bir insan peygamberlik iddiasında bulunup Taif’te taşlanmayı neden göze alsın? Rahatını düşünen biri neden bütün kavmini karşına alıp onlara savaş açsın? Neden yıllarca hakaretlere, eziyetlere dirensin? Rahatını düşünen biri neden yıllarca boykota direnip aç kalmayı göze alsın?

Kaynakça

1) Elmalılı M. Hamdi YAZIR, Ahzap 53 tefsiri

AHZAP 53 İDDİALARI

Yazı dolaşımı


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