çevirmen notu: Amerikalı kuramsal fizikçi Lawrence Krauss’un 2012 yılında yayınladığı “Hiç yoktan bir Evren” kitabında evrenin hiçlikten kendi kendine çıkabileceğini iddia etmesi bilim ve felsefe camiasında büyük tartışmalara sebep olmuştu. Söz konusu iddia birçok filozof ve bilim insanı tarafından eleştiriye uğramış ve iddianın sadece hatalı, sahte bir tanımdan ibaret olduğu dile getirilmişti. Çevirdiğimiz yazıda ise Hamza Tzortzis’in söz konusu iddiaya verdiği cevabı sunmaktayız. İyi okumalar;

Profesör Lawrence Krauss’un Hiç Yoktan Bir Evren adlı kitabı “Neden hiçbir şey yerine bir şeyler var?” Leibnizci sorusuyla ilgili tartışmayı canlandırdı ve popüler hale getirdi.[1] Krauss kitabında, evrenin “hiçlik”ten ortaya çıkmasının makul olduğunu savunuyor. Kulağa anlamsız gelse de, çıkarımlarının bağlamını anlamak için bazı ön kabul ve açıklamaların aydınlatılması gerekmektedir.

Krauss’un “hiçlik” dediği aslında bir şeydir. Krauss kitabında hiçliği “sabit olmayan”[2] şeklinde tanımlamaktadır. Başka yerlerde ise “boş ama önceden var olan mekan”[3] olarak adlandırdığı hiçliğin fiziksel bir şey olduğunu onaylamaktadır. Bu ilginç bir dilbilimsel sapmadır; çünkü İngilizcede hiçliğin tanımı evrensel bir yokluğa işaret eder. Ancak Krauss’un “hiçliği”, “bir şey”in etiketi gibi durmaktadır. Araştırmasında, “hiçliği” zamanın, mekanın ve parçacıkların yokluğu şeklinde tarif etse de acemi okuyucuyu yanlış yönlendirmekte ve hala bazı fiziksel şeylerin var olduğunu (açıkça) doğrulayamamaktadır. Krauss’un iddia ettiği gibi madde var olmasa da, fiziksel alanlar var olmalıdır. Bunun nedeni, alanların olmadığı bir bölgenin var olmasının imkansız olmasıdır; çünkü yerçekimi engellenemez. Kuantum teorisine göre, bu gerçeklik seviyesindeki yerçekimi, kütlesi olan nesneler gerektirmez; ancak fiziksel şeyler gerektirir. Bu nedenle, Krauss’un “hiçliği” aslında bir şeydir. Kitabının başka bir yerinde, her şeyin kuantum dalgalanmalarından ortaya çıktığı yazmaktadır. Bu da “hiçlikten” yaratılışı açıklamak içindir; ancak bunun bir olasılık olarak sunulması önceden var olan bir kuantum haline işaret etmektedir. [4]

Kuantum Mekaniği ve Deneyimi adlı kitabın yazarı Profesör David Albert, Krauss’un kitabının bir incelemesini yazarak benzer bir sonuca varmıştır;

“Ancak bu doğru değil. Göreli kuantum alan teorisindeki vakum durumları -zürafalar, buzdolapları veya güneş sistemlerinden daha az olmamak üzere- basit fiziksel şeylerin özel düzenlemeleridir. Göreli kuantum alanı teorisinde hiçbir fiziksel şeyin var olmamasının eşdeğeri aslında şu ya da bu alanların özel düzenlemesi değildir – sadece alanların yokluğudur! Alanların bazı düzenlemelerinin parçacıkların varlığına karşılık gelmesi ve bazılarının da gelmemesi gerçeği, parmaklarımın bazı olası düzenlemelerinin bir yumruğun varlığına karşılık gelmesi ve bazılarının gelmemesi gerçeğinden daha gizemli değildir. Bu alanlar kendilerini yeniden düzenledikçe, parçacıkların zamanla varoluşa girip çıkabilmeleri, parmaklarımın kendilerini yeniden düzenlerken zamanla yumrukların ortaya çıkıp çıkmamasından daha gizemli değildir. Hiçlikten yaratılış düşüncesinde, bu ortaya çıkmaların hiçbiri –doğru anlaşıldıklarında- uzaktan bile bir şey ifade etmemektedir.”[5]

David Albert

Felsefi Ayrımlar

İlginçtir ki, Profesör Krauss, Leibniz’in yıllardır süregelen sorusuna cevap vermek için hiçliğin tanımını değiştirmiş gibi görünmektedir. Krauss’un tanımı, iyi bilinen felsefi ayrımları bulanıklaştırdığı için tartışmanın tamamını sorunlu hale getirmektedir. “Hiçlik” terimi her zaman var olmamaya veya bir şeyin yokluğuna atfedilmiştir. [6] Bu nedenle, Krauss’un “hiçlik” tanımından yola çıkan birisinin aşağıdakileri ileri sürmesini makul hale gelmektedir:

 “Dün gece harika bir akşam yemeği yedim ve o yemek bir hiçti.”

“Koridorda hiç kimseyle tanıştım ve bana bu odayı tarif ettiler.”

“Hiçlik tuz ve karabiberle daha lezzetlidir.”[7]

Bu ifadeler mantığa aykırı ifadelerdir ve hiçliğin tanımı değiştirilmediği sürece anlamsız önermelerle eş değerdirler. Profesör Krauss’un hiçlik görüşünün, var olmamaya işaret etmediğini ima etmesi şaşırtıcı değildir. Krauss şöyle yazmıştır: “Ancak, bir şey kesindir. Yaratılış meselesini tartıştığım kişilerin katı bir inançla kabul ettikleri metafizik “kural” olan “hiçlikten hiçlik gelir”in bilimde temeli yoktur.”[8]

Bu açıkça Krauss’un hiçliğin anlamını bir şey ifade edecek şekilde değiştirdiği anlamına gelir; çünkü bir yöntem olarak bilim fiziksel dünyadaki şeylere odaklanır. Bilim, yalnızca doğa olayları ve doğal süreçler hakkında cevaplar üretebilir. “Hayatın anlamı nedir? Ruh var mıdır? Hiçlik nedir?” gibi sorular sorduğumuzda genel beklenti metafizik yanıtlar elde etmektir ve bu nedenle, bu sorular herhangi bir bilimsel açıklamanın kapsamı dışındadır.

Lawrence Krauss

Bilim, hiçlik ya da var olmama düşüncesine değinemez; çünkü bilim gözlemle çözebilecek problemlerle sınırlıdır. Bilim filozofu Elliot Sober bu sınırlılığı doğrular. Empiricism adlı yazısında, “bilim, gözlemlerin çözebileceği sorunlara dikkatini sınırlamak zorundadır” şeklinde yazar.[9] Bu nedenle, Profesör Krauss, bilimin aslında çözemeyeceği bir sorunu çözmesi için hiçlik kelimesinin anlamını değiştirmiştir. Bu, birisinin bir soruyu cevaplayamaması ve yenilgiyi kabul etmek veya soruyu bir başkasına yönlendirmek yerine sorunun anlamını değiştirmeye başvurmasıyla eşdeğer olduğundan, belki de bir yenilgi olarak görülmelidir. Hiçlik kavramının metafizik bir kavram olduğunu ve bilimin yalnızca gözlemlenebilenle ilgilendiğini söylemek entelektüel anlamda daha dürüst bir tercih olurdu.

Neticesiz araştırma ve dilbilim cambazlığının popülerleştirilmesi

Tüm bunlar bir yana, Profesör Krauss, “hiçlik” araştırmasının belirsiz ve kesin kanıtlardan yoksun olduğunu “Burada olabilir kelimesini vurguluyorum, çünkü bu soruyu açık bir şekilde çözmek için hiçbir zaman yeterli ampirik bilgiye sahip olamayabiliriz.” diyerek kabul etmiştir.[10] Kitabının başka bir yerinde argümanının neticesiz doğasını kabul eder;

“Ayrıntıları çözme ile ilgili gözlemsel ve teorik zorluklar sebebiyle bu konuda asla inandırıcılıktan fazlasına ulaşamayacağımızı düşünüyorum.”[11]

Bunun ışığında, Profesör Krauss hiçlik kelimesini yeniden tanımlamak yerine, sadece evrenin vakum durumu gibi fiziksel bir şeyden ortaya çıktığını söylemelidir. Ancak Krauss, dilbilim cambazlığını popülerleştirme konusunda son derece kararlı görünmektedir. İslam mı Ateizm mi: Hangisi Daha Mantıklı? tartışmamız sırasında onun “hiçlik” tanımının kuantum belirsizliği gibi bir şeye denk geldiğini açıklamak için kitabına atıfta bulundum. Ancak o karşı çıkarak hiçliğin “Uzay yok, zaman yok, yasalar yok … evren yok, hiçbir şey yok, hiç, sıfır.” olduğunu söyledi. [12]

Krauss önemli ve gizli bir öncülü kasıtlı olarak atlamış görünmektedir. Onun hiçliğinde hala bazı fiziksel şeyler vardır; halka açık bir konferansta açıkça kabul ettiği bir şey. Bir şeyin ve hiçliğin “… fiziksel nicelikler” olduğunu söylemiştir.[13]

Özetle, Profesör Krauss’un hiçliği bir şeydir. Evren, Krauss’un “hiçlik” olarak adlandırdığı fiziksel bir şeyden ortaya çıkmıştır ve bu nedenle Leibniz’in “Neden hiçbir şey yerine bir şeyler var?” sorusu cevapsız kalır. Gerçekte, Krauss yalnızca şu soruyu yanıtlamıştır: Bir şey nasıl bir şeyden ortaya çıktı? Bu, bilimin cevaplayabileceği ve dilbilimsel cambazlık gerektirmeyen bir sorudur.

Tanrı’nın varlığı, Krauss’un hiçlik hakkındaki görüşü tarafından sarsılmamaktadır. Bize gerçekten sunduğu tek şey, evrenin (zaman ve uzay) bir şeyden ortaya çıktığıdır. Bu nedenle evren, varlığı için hala bir açıklamaya muhtaçtır.

Orijinal metin: http://www.hamzatzortzis.com/on-professor-lawrence-krauss-nothing/

References

[1] Leibniz, G. W. (1714) The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason. 1714. Available at: http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/leibniz1714a.pdf [Accessed 4th October 2016].

[2] Krauss, L. M. (2012) A Universe from Nothing: Why is there Something Rather Than Nothing. London: Simon & Schuster, p. 170.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid, p. 105.

[5] Albert, D. (2012) ‘A Universe From  Nothing,’ by Lawrence M. Krauss. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/25/books/review/a-universe-from-nothing-by-lawrence-m-krauss.html?_r=0 [Accessed 1st October 2016].

[6] Craig, W.L. (2012) A Universe from Nothing. Available at: http://www.reasonablefaith.org/a-universe-from-nothing [Accessed 9th October 2016].

[7] Analogies adapted from Craig, W.L. (2012) A Universe from Nothing. Available at: http://www.reasonablefaith.org/a-universe-from-nothing [Accessed 9th October 2016].

[8] Krauss, L. A (2012) Universe from Nothing, p. 174.

[9] Sober, E. (2010). Empiricism. In: Psillos, S and Curd, M, ed, The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 137-138.

[10] Krauss, L. (2012) A Universe from Nothing, p. xiii.

[11] Ibid p. 147.

[12] iERA. (2013) Lawrence Krauss vs Hamza Tzortzis – Islam vs atheism debate. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uSwJuOPG4FI [Accessed 10th September 2016].

[13] Tony Sobrado. (2012) How the Universe Came from ‘Nothing’, Richard Dawkins and Lawrence Krauss discuss. Available at: https://youtu.be/CXGyesfHzew?t=921 [Accessed 2nd October 2016].

KRAUSS’UN HİÇ YOKTAN EVRENİ – HAMZA TZORTZİS

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