Ebü’l-Hasen el-Mâverdî (M.S. 972-1058)

Ebü’l-Hasen Alî b. Muhammed b. Habîb el-Mâverdî, M.S. 972’de Basra’da dünyaya geldi. İlk öğrenimini Basra’da gördü, burada temel eğitimini tamamladıktan sonra fakîh Abdülvâhid b. Hüseyin es-Saymerî’den fıkıh öğrendi. Ardından, Şeyh Ebû Hâmid el-İsferâyînî ve Ebû Muhammed Abdullah b. Muhammed el-Bâfî yanında daha ileri çalışmalar yürütmek üzere Bağdat’a gitti. Kendisinin; fıkıh, ahlâk, siyaset bilimi ve edebiyat alanlarındaki mahareti, saygıdeğer bir kariyeri güvence altına alması hususunda semeresini verdi. (Latince ismi Alboacen)

İlk kez kadı olarak atanmasından sonra, Bağdat baş kadısı olana kadar kademeli olarak daha yüksek makamlara terfi etti. Abbâsî halifesi Kāim-Biemrillâh, onu, kendi elçisi olarak atadı ve özel görevlerin başında bir dizi ülkeye gönderdi. Bu sıfatla, Abbâsî halifeliğinin gerilemesi ile Büveyhî ve Selçukluların yükselen güçleri arasında uyumlu ilişkiler kurmada kilit bir rol oynadı. Zamanın çoğu hükümdarı tarafından zengin hediyeler ve övgülere mazhar olmak suretiyle imtiyaz gördü. Bağdat Büveyhîler tarafından ele geçirildiğinde kendisi henüz oradaydı. Mâverdî, 1058 yılında vefat etti.

Mâverdî, büyük bir fakîh, muhaddis ve toplumbilimci olmasının yanı sıra siyaset bilimi alanında da uzmandı. Fıkıh ilminde ihtisas sahibiydi ve ictihad ilkeleri üzerine yazdığı kitabı el-Ḥâvî, büyük bir üne sahipti.

Siyaset bilimi ve sosyolojiye yaptığı katkı, en ünlüleri el-Aḥkâmü’s-sulṭâniyye, Ḳavânînü’l-vizâre ve Naṣîḥatü’l-mülûk olan bir dizi muazzam kitabı içermektedir. Kitaplar; halifenin, baş vezir ve diğer vezirlerin işlev ve görevlerine, halk ve hükümetin çeşitli unsurları arasındaki ilişkilere ve hükümeti güçlendirmek ve savaşta zaferi garantilemek üzere alınan tedbirlere hususi bir atıfta bulunarak siyaset biliminin ilkelerini tartışmaktadır. Bu kitaplardan ikisi, el-Aḥkâmü’s-sulṭâniyye ve Ḳavânînü’l-vizâre, yayımlandı ve çeşitli dillere de tercüme edildi. Kendisi, siyaset biliminde “zaruret nazariyesi”nin yazarı/destekçisi olarak kabul edilir. Bu nedenle, güçlü bir hilafetin taraftarıydı ve valilere verilen kaos yaratma eğilimindeki sınırsız yetkilerin önünü kesti. Öte yandan, halifenin seçimi ve seçmenlerin (ehlü’l-hal ve’l-akd) nitelikleri üzerine açık ilkeler ortaya koydu; bunların başında belli bir entelektüel seviyeye ve karakter saflığına ulaşmak vardır.

Ahlâk alanında, konuyla ilgili çok popüler bir kitap haline gelen ve bazı İslam ülkelerinde hâlâ okunan Edebü’d-dünyâ ve’d-dîn’i yazdı.

Mâverdî, siyaset biliminin Orta Çağ’da en ünlü düşünürlerinden biri olarak kabul edilmiştir. Onun özgün çalışması, daha sonra İbn Haldûn tarafından üstüne eklenerek geliştirilecek toplumbilimle (sosyoloji) birlikte bu bilimin gelişimini etkilemiştir.

Kaynakça

Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (W. Hazmy C.H.Zainurashid Z.Hussaini R.)  syf: 61-62

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