İbnü’l-Heysem (M.S. 965-1040)

Ebû Alî Hasen b. el-Heysem, optik ilimleri ve bilimsel yöntemlere katkıları olağanüstü olan, en seçkin fizikçilerden biriydi. Batı’da Alhazen olarak bilindi. Günümüzdeki modern bilimsel metodun kurucusudur, o yüzden kendisi dünyanın ilk gerçek bilim insanı kabul edilir.

İbnü’l-Heysem, M.S. 965’te Basra’da doğdu, burada ve Bağdat’ta eğitim gördü. Sonrasında, orada kendisinden Nil’in taşmasını kontrol edecek yöntemler bulmasının istendiği Mısır’a gitti.Bu konuda başarısız olması sonucu, Halife Hâkim’in ölümüne kadar deli taklidi yaptı. Ayrıca, İspanya’ya seyahat etti. Bu süre zarfında; optik, matematik, fizik, tıp ve hakkında birçok önde gelen kitap bıraktığı ilimlerin her biri üzerine bilimsel yöntemlerin geliştirilmesini içeren ilmî çalışmaları için yeteri kadar vakte sahip oldu.

Işığın çeşitli ortamlardan geçişini ayrıntılı bir şekilde inceledi ve kırılma yasalarını keşfetti. Ayrıca ışığın bileşen renklerine dağılması üzerine ilk deneyleri gerçekleştirdi. Kitâbü’l-Menâẓır adlı kitabı, Orta Çağ’da Latinceye çevrilmiş, ayrıca gün batımının renkleriyle ilgili kitabıdır. Gölgeler, tutulmalar, gökkuşağı gibi çeşitli fiziksel fenomenler teorisini uzun süre ele aldı ve ışığın fiziksel doğası üzerine kafa yordu. Kendisi, gözün çeşitli kısımlarını tam olarak tanımlayan ve görme sürecinin bilimsel bir açıklamasını veren ilk kişidir. Ayrıca binoküler (çiftgözmercekli) görmeyi açıklamaya çalıştı ve ufka yakınken güneşin ve ayın boyutundaki belirgin artışın doğru bir açıklamasını yaptı.

İbnü’l-Heysem, karanlık odanın (camera obscura) en erken kullanımı ile tanınır. Batlamyus ve Öklid’in, nesnelerin gözlerden yayılan ışınlar sayesinde görülebildiği görüş teorisinin aksini iddia etti; ona göre ışınların kaynağı göz değil, görülen nesnedir. Optik üzerine yapılan bu kapsamlı araştırmalar sayesinde, modern optik ilminin babası olarak kabul edilmiştir.

Asıl eseri Kitâbü’l-Menâẓır’ın Latince tercümesi, Batı bilimi üzerinde (örneğin Roger Bacon ve Kepler’in çalışmalarında) büyük bir etki oluşturdu. Bu ise, deneysel yöntemlerde büyük bir ilerlemeyi beraberinde getirdi. Katoptrik (ışığın yansımasıyla ilgilenen optik dalı) üzerine yaptığı araştırma, küresel ve parabolik aynalar ve küresel sapma üzerine odaklandı. Yansıma açısı ile kırılma arasındaki oranın sabit kalmadığı konusunda önemli bir gözlemde bulunmuş ve bir merceğin büyütme gücünü araştırmıştır.

Katoptrik ile ilgili çalışmaları, Alhazen problemi olarak bilinen önemli problemi içerir. Buna, bir çember düzleminde, iki noktadan çizilen ve çember çevresi üzerindeki bir noktada buluşan çizgiler çizmek ve o noktada normal ile eşit açılar oluşturmak dahildir. Bu ise, dördüncü dereceden bir denkleme ulaştırır.

İbnü’l-Heysem, Mîzânü’l-hikme adlı kitabında atmosferin yoğunluğunu tartıştı ve onunla yükseklik arasında bir ilişki geliştirdi. Ayrıca ışığın atmosferik kırılmasını çalıştı. Alacakaranlığın yalnızca güneş ufkun 19° altında altındayken dindiğini yahut başladığını keşfetti ve atmosferin yüksekliğini bu temelde ölçmeye çalıştı. Ayrıca, kitleler arasındaki çekim teorilerini tartıştı ve görülen o ki, ivmenin artışının yerçekimi nedeniyle gerçekleştiğinin farkındaydı.

Onun matematik ve fiziğe olan katkısı büyüktü. Matematikte, cebir ve geometri arasında bağlantı kurarak analitik geometriyi geliştirdi. Bir organizmanın hareket mekaniğini inceledi ve bir dış kuvvet onu durdurmadıkça veya hareket yönünü değiştirmedikçe organizmanın sürekli hareket hâlinde olacağını savunan ilk kişi oldu. Bu ise, ilk hareket yasasına eşdeğer görünmektedir.

Kitaplarının sayısı 200’e kadar çıkar, pek azı günümüze ulaşmıştır. Optik konusundaki muazzam tezi bile Latince çevirisi kanalıyla günümüze ulaşmıştır. Orta Çağ’da, kozmoloji hakkındaki kitapları Latince, İbranice ve diğer dillere çevrilmişti. Ayrıca evrim konusunda da bugün bile ciddi ilgiyi hak eden bir kitap yazmıştır.

Herhangi birisi, yazdıklarında, Müslümanlar tarafından geliştirilmiş ve tatbik edilmiş, fiziksel fenomenlerin sistematik olarak gözlemi ve bunların bir bilimsel teoriyle irtibatlandırılmasını içeren bilimsel yöntemlerin net bir gelişimini görebilir. Bu, tahmin ve işaretten ayrı olarak bilimsel metodolojide önemli bir atılımdı ve bilimsel arayışları; gözlem, hipotez ve doğrulama arasındaki sistematik ilişkiyi içeren sağlam bir temel üzerine yerleştirdi.

İbnü’l-Heysem’in, genelde fizik, özelde optik ilimleri üzerindeki etkisi büyük saygı görmüş ve aslında, teori ve pratikte, optik araştırmaları üzerine yeni bir çığır açmıştır.

Kaynakça

Biography – Muslim Scholars and Scientists (W. Hazmy C.H.Zainurashid Z.Hussaini R.)  syf: 58-60

Ayrıca İbni Heysem ile ilgili Barış Özcan’ın şu videosunu da izleyebilirsiniz; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pQxgqESeGtI

İBNÜ’L HEYSEM KİMDİR?

Yazı dolaşımı


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