IŞIĞIN DOĞUSU

yazar notu : Bu yazımızda müslüman bilim insanlarının bilime olan katkıları hakkında özet şeklinde kısa bilgiler verilecektir. Yazımızda Cuma Vural’ın “Işık Doğu’dan Yükselir” adlı kitabından faydalanılmıştır. Eksik veya yanlış bilgi varsa yorum kısmında belirtebilirsiniz. Birkaç istisna dışında isimler alfabetik sırayla gidiyor. Hadi başlayalım;

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abbas vesim efendi

verem mikrobunu robert koch’dan 150 sene önce keşfeden ünlü doktordur. robert koch ise 1905 yılında nobel tıp veya fizyoloji ödülünü almıştır bu çalışmasından dolayı.

en önemli eseri; düsturul vesim fi tıbbil cedid ve’l kadim

ayrıca kimya dalında tıbbi cedidi kimya ve astronomi dalında risale-ı ruyeti hilal eseri vardır.
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ahmet bin musa

sistem mühendisliğinin öncüsü olarak bilinir, astronom ve mekanikçidir. babası musa bin şakir, kardeşleri muhammed ve hasan da kendisi gibi bilim ile uğraşmışlardır. kardeşi muhammed ile birlikte önemli bazı yıldızların günlük doğuş, batışlarını ve değişiklikleri hesaplamıştır.

ayrıca halife memun tarafından daha önce sabit bin kurra’nın dünyanın çevresini doğru ölçüp ölçmediğini kontrol etmek için görevlendirilir. üç kardeş sincan ve kufe’de yaptıkları ölçümler ile sabit bin kurra ile aynı değeri bulurlar.
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akşemseddin

louis pasteur’den yaklaşık 400 yıl önce maddetul hayat eserinde mikroptan şu şekilde bahsetmiştir;

“hastalıkların insanlarda teker teker ortaya çıktığını sanmak hatadır. hastalık insandan insana bulaşmak suretiyle gözle görülmeyecek kadar küçük fakat canlı tohumlar vasıtasıyla olur”
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ali bin abbas

ilk kanser ameliyatını ve kılcal damar sistemini ilk defa ortaya atan bilim adamıdır. ve hipokrat’ın doğum ile ilgili görüşünü yıkan kişidir. Ayrıca farklı yıllarda kitapları avrupa’da basılmış, okutulmuştur

latince ismi: haly abbas
en önemli eserleri: kitab el maliki, kitab kamilüs sina
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ali bin rıdvan

batıdaki ismi: haly abedrudian

supernova gözlemleri ve tümevarim teorisi üzerine çalışmalar yapmıştır. ama asıl çalışmaları tıp alanında olup yunan hekim galen’in ars parva eseri üzerine çalışmıştır. batıya tedavi yöntemlerini öğreten alim olarak bilinir.
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ali kuşçu

fatih döneminin en önemli matematik ve astronomi bilginlerindendir. istanbul’un enlem, boylamını ölçmüş ve çeşitli güneş saatleri yapmıştır

en önemli iki eseri; fethiye ve muhammediye

matematik alanında 7, astronomi 7, kimya ve fizik alanında 1, mekanik alanında 1, dil ve belagat alanında 19 eseri vardır
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altuncuzade

fatih devrinin önemli hekimlerindendir. asıl alanı üroloji ve botanik. idrar yollarındaki iltihabı boşaltmak ve çeşitli otlardan ilaç yapmada maharetli biriydi

diğer isimleri; altunizade ve ibni zehebi
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ammar bin ali

11. yüzyılın en tanınmış göz doktorudur ve ilk katarakt ameliyatını yapan kişidir. altı katarakt ameliyatında içi boş tüp kullanıp bu tüp ile kataraktı emerek çıkarmayı başarmıştır. eserleri çeşitli yıllarda ibraniceye, latinceye, almancaya, ispanyolcaya, ingilizceye ve fransızcaya çevrilmiştir.

batıdaki ismi: canamusali
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el battani

dünyanın en meşhur 20 astronomundan biri olarak bilinen battani şanlıurfa’nın harran ilçesinde doğmuştur. sinüs ve cosinus tabirlerini ilk kullanan bilgin olduğu söylenmekte. ayrıca trigonometrik birçok formül bulmuştur.

modern ölçülerle 23 26′.7 olarak hesaplanan dünya ekliptik eğimini battani 9. yüzyılda 23.35′ olarak hesaplamıştır. ayrıca yaptığı gözlemler ile 489 yıldızı sınıflandırmıştır. modern ölçülerle 365 gün 5 saat 48 dakika 46 saniye olduğu bilinen bir güneş yılını henüz o dönemde 365 gün 5 saat 46 dakika 24 saniye gibi yakın bir değer olarak ölçmüştür

mekke’ın enlem ve boylam tespitini yaparak kıble dogrultusu belirlemiştir. ve sıfırdan 90 dereceye kadar acıların trigonometrik değerlerini hesaplamıştır. ayrıca yaptığı gözlemler ile 489 yıldızı sınıflandırmıştır.

ve daha sayılamayacak kadar büyük işlere imza atan bu adamın ismi ay’a verilmiştir. ay, ay haritalarinda “albategnus” olarak kaybedilir ve bu battani’nin batıdaki ismi.

orta çağ batı dünyasında eserleri ilk defa latinceye çevrilen müslüman bilimadami olup kopernik de kitabinda battaniye minnettar olduğunu ve birçok yerde kendisinden alıntı yaptığını belirtmiştir
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biruni

batıdaki isimleri: alberuni ve aliboron

henüz 17 yaşındayken ilk kitabını yazan biruni ilk eğitimini bir yunan bilginden aldı. yetmiş adet astronomi ve yirmi adet de matematik kitabı bulunmaktadır. tıp, biyoloji, bitkiler, madenler, hayvanlar ve yararlı otlar üzerinde bir dizin oluşturmuştur

dünyanın döndüğünü ilk bulan, ümit burnu, amerika ve japonya’nin varlığından bahseden ilk bilim insanıdır. bîrûnî, trigonometrik fonksiyonlarda yarıçapın bir birim olarak kabul edilmesini öneren ilk kişi olup sinüs ve kosinüs gibi fonksiyonlara sekant, kosekant ve kotanjant fonksiyonlarını ilave etmiştir.

“kitâbü’l-camahir fi mârifeti’l-cevâhir” (türkçe: cevherlerin özellikleri üstüne) adlı yapıtında 23 katı maddenin ve altı sıvının özgül ağırlıklarını bugünkü değerlerine çok yakın olarak saptamıştır.tıp alanında da birçok eser veren birûni, döneminde bir kadını sezaryenle doğum yaptırmayı başarmıştır.

“kitabu’s saydane” eseri ile üç bin kadar bitkinin neye yaradığını ve nasıl kullanıldığı yazmaktadır. ilaçların yanında o bitkinin arapça, farsça, yunanca, sanskritçe
ve türkçe isimlerini de yazmıştır.

modern bilimin 23 26′ 7 olarak ölçülen dünyanın ekliptik eğimini de biruni 23 27′ olarak ölçmüştür
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bitruci

batıdaki ismi: alpetragius

kopernik’e öncülük eden astronomlardan biri olan bitruci bir çok avrupalı bilimadamini etkilemiştir ve kendisi dönemin ünlü bilginlerinden ibn-ı tufeyl’in öğrencisidir.

güneş sistemindeki gezegenlerin konumu, dönüş hızı, dönüş yönü, sıralaması gibi birçok konuda batlamyus’un görüşlerini yıkmıştır.

ayrıca bütün gezegenlerin iki kutuplu olduğunu, gezegenlerin günlük dönüşe sahip olduğunu söylemiş ve kendi dönemine kadar sayıları 8 kabul edilen gezegenlere dokuzuncu bir gezegen eklemiştir

kendisi modern astronominin temeli olan helyo sentrik gezegen sistemini ilk defa kuran kişidir.
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bursalı ali münşi

osmanlı saray hekimlerindendir.başta kınakına bitkisi olmak üzere eserlerinde bir çok bitkinin ilaç olarak nasıl kullanılacağının tarifini yapmıştır. ayrıca maden sularının şifalı özelliklerinden de bahsetmiştir
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cabir bin eflah

batıdaki ismi: geber

cabir bin eflah’ı üne kavuşturan eseri, batlamyus’un eseri olan el-mescit’teki yanlışları düzeltmesi için yazdığı kitabül-hey’e fi ıstıhi’l mecisti eseridir.

namaz vakitlerini öğrenmek için müslüman alimler usturlab aletini bulmuştu ama cabir bundan daha mükemmeli olan çubuklu güneş saatini icat etti.
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cabir bin hayyan

batıdaki ismi : geber

kendisi batıda cabir bin eflah ile karıştırılmış ve ikisi de batıda aynı isimle anılmıştır.

cabir bin hayyan atom bombası fikrinin ilk mucidi, atomun parçalanabileceğini ve bundan çok büyük bir enerji çıkacağını söyleyen ilk kişidir. “kimyanın babası” olarak bilinir ve aynı zamanda simya’nın da ustalarından sayılır. hatta ibni haldun kimyacilarin kimya bilimine “ilmi cabir” dediklerini nakletmiştir. tabiattaki maddelerin saf olmadığını söylemiş ve dünya üzerinde kurduğu ilk kimya laboratuvarı ile saf elementler elde etmeye çalışmıştır.

bunun yanında oksitleme, sublinasyon, damıtma, çökeltme, ergitme ve kristalleştirme gibi arıtma yollarını uygulamalı olarak açıklamıştır. bitkilerden yağ, boya elde etmiş ve manganez dioksitin cam yapımında kullanmıştır
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el cahız

darwinden yaklaşık 1000 yıl önce 350’de fazla hayvan türünü incelediği “kitab al-hayawan (hayvanlar kitabı)” eserinde evrimden bahsetmiştir.

not: darwin evrim fikrini ortaya atan kişi değil evrimi inşa eden kişidir

biyoloji, zooloji, tarih, psikoloji gibi bir çok dalda çalışmış ve 200 kadar kitap yazmıştır. hayvanları deney için kullanan ilk biliminsanı olup aynı zamanda hayvan gübresinden amonyak elde etmiştir. ayrıca teneffüsün sadece akcigerler ile değil aynı zamanda ciltteki delikler aracılığıyla da olduğunu ilk ortaya atan kişidir.
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cezeri

bugün bildiğimiz cizre’de doğmuş ve yaşamış “cezeri” ismini de burdan almaktadır. kendisi ilk sistem mühendisi, ilk sibernetikçi, ilk elektronikçidir ve robotik bilimin babası olarak bilinir.ve çalışmaları leonardo da vinci’ye de ilham kaynağı olmuştur

el câmi-u’l beyn’el ilmî ve el-amelî’en nâfi fî sınâ’ati’l hiyel adlı eserinde 50’den fazla cihazın kullanım esaslarını, yararlanma olanaklarını çizimlerle gösterdi. fil su saati, mumlu saatler, kandilli su saati vb icatlar yapan cezeri’nın diyarbakır ulu camii’deki güneş saati de önemli eserlerindendir. bunun yanında buharla çalışan güvercin de yapmıştır. yapacağı cihazların önceden kağıttan maketini yapıp geometri kurallarından faydalanirdi.
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demirî

avrupalılardan 400 yıl önce ilk zooloji ansiklopedisini yazan bilim insanıdır. ve batıda “müslümanların buffon’u” unvanıyla anılır. “hayatul hayvan” eserinde hayvanları sınıflandırmış ve onlar hakkında hem bilimsel ve hem de dini bilgilere yer vermiştir. ayrıca hayvanlardan yapılabilecek tibbi ilaçlar hakkında da bilgi verir
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dinaveri

6 ciltlik “kitab’ün nebat” isimli eseri ile tanınmış ve arap coğrafyasında botaniğin babası lakabıyla anılmıştır. bunun yanında 13 ciltlik kur’an tefsiri de vardır. ayrıca kürt kökenli olup kürtlerin etnik kökeni üzerine yaptığı çalışmalar ile kürtlerin atalarını araştıran ilk bilimadami olarak bilinir
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er razi

hemen hemen bütün eserleri latinceye çevrilen razi’nın en önemli eseri olan ve 20 ciltten oluşan “el havi” ise 11 dile çevrilmiş ve 17. yy’a kadar da tıp kitabı olarak okutulmuştur.

er razi cerrahide dikiş malzemesi olarak ilk kez hayvan bağırsağı kullanan ve ilk göz ameliyatını yapan kişidir. fizik, felsefe, tıp, kimya dallarında uzman olan er razi ilk defa kimyayı tıbbın hizmetine sunmuş ayrıca tıp ve ahlak üzerine yazdığı kitap ile bir hekimin uyması gereken kuralları belirtmiştir.

ayrıca pediyatri’nin babası olarak bilinir. alkol ve gazyağını bulan ve çiçek hastalığını kızamıktan farklı olduğunu ilk keşfeden kişidir. ve farklı alanlarda yaklaşık 200 kitap ve makalesi bulunur. rey ve bağdat hastahanelerinde baş hekim olan er razi’nın doğum günü olan 27 ağustos her yıl iran’da tıp bayramı olarak kutlanır. ayrıca islam dünyası içinde ilk defa doğa felsefesini savunan kişidir
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ebu kamil şuca

ünlü matematikçi harezmi ile yani dönemde yaşamış ve kendisi “el hasib” yani “hesap eden” lakabıyla ünlüdür. kendisi cebir tarihinde ilk defa 2.derecenin üstünde denklemlerin çözümünü tam bir hassasiyetle yapmıştır
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ebu’l fida

ebu’l fida, selahaddin eyyubi’nin babası olan necmeddin eyyub’un torunudur. ve tarihçi, coğrafyacı, filozof olmasının yanında aynı zamanda bir komutandır.

en önemli eserleri; takvim ül buldan(şehirler dizisi) ve muhtasaru tarih il-beşer
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ebu’l vefa

trigonometriye tanjant, kotenjant, sekant ve kosekantı kazandıran ve daha önce hiçbir matematikçinin yapamadığı hassaslikta trigonometrik çizelgeler hazırlayan ünlü matematikci ve astronomdur.

astronomik gözlemler için gerekli sinüs ve tanjant değerlerini gösteren 15’şer dakikalık açı aralıklarıyla hesapladı.
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ebu maşer el belhi

latince ismi: albumasar
bizans kaynaklarında ismi: apomasar

med-cezir(gelgit) olayını ilk keşfeden kişidir. rivayete göre akli ilimlere, bilime karşı olan bu adam ünlü filozof el kindi sayesinde matematiğe ilgi duymuştur.
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farabi

batıdaki ismi: alpharabius

ses olayını ilk kez fizik yönünden ele alıp izah eden kişidir. islam dünyasında aristo’ya “ilk öğretmen” denilirken farabi de “ikinci öğretmen” ünvanıyla anılmıştır. islam tarihinin en önemli filozoflarindan biri olan farabi, aristo’nun temel eserlerini arapça’ya çeviren kişidir aynı zamanda.
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fergani

batıdaki ismi: alfarganus

eserleri yıllarca batıda okutulmuş olan astronomi ve matematik alimidir.ekliptik meyli ilk kez tespit eden bilimadamıdır.

gök cisimlerinin hayali, ruhi cisimler olduğunu söyleyen batlamyus’u eleştirip tam tersine onların homosentetik, eksantrik daireler olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. kainatın ve gezegenlerin hacim ve büyüklükleri ile birbirine uzaklıklarını inceledi. ve yaptığı hesaplamalar, kopernik’e kadar batı astronomisinde değişmez ölçüler olarak kabul edilerek asırlarca kullanıldı.

fergani, güneş’in yarıçapının uzunluğunun 3250 arap mili olduğunu söyledi. bu da 6.410.000 metre ve 3990 ingiliz miline eşittir.

fergani, güneş’in de kendine göre hareketli olduğunu, bilim tarihinde ilk keşfeden alimdir. kendi devrine kadar gök cisimlerinin hareketi bilinmiyordu. ayrıca, güneş’in de bir yörügesinin bulunduğunu kendi etrafında batıdan doğuya doğru döndüğünü ilk defa keşfedendir. bunun yanında 41 yıl devam eden astronomi incelemelerinde enlemler arasındaki mesafeyi hesapladı.

fergani, güneş tutulmasını önceden tespit eden bir usul de buldu.

bu usulle, 842 yılında bir güneş tutulması olacağını önceden tespit etti ve o gün bu konuda rasatlarda bulunup incelemeler yaptı. dünya’nın yuvarlak olduğu konusunda yeni deliller gösterdi. çizimini kendi hazırladığı ve yapımına nezaret ettiği nil nehrisularının hızını ve seviyesini ölçen mikyas ül-cedid adında bir alet yapmıştır.
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gıyaseddin cemşid

aritmetikte ondalık sistemi ilk kullanan kişidir ve arşimed’in pi sayısının hesaplanması için önerdiği iç içe poligonlar yöntemini kullanarak virgülden sonra 14. basamağa kadar gitmiş kadar hassas bir şekilde ölçmüştür. o güne kadar en iyi sonuç olarak zu chongzhi tarafından 6. basamağa kadar gidilmişti

ayrıca gezegenlerin yörüngelerinin dairesel değil de elips olduğunu ilk keşfeden kepler olarak bilinsede aslında nezhet-ül hadaik eserinde cemsid bunu ortaya koymuştur. binom açılımdan kök alma işlemlerinin keşfi newton’a atfediliyorsa da bunu asıl ortaya koyan da cemsid’dir.

bunun yanında güneş ve ay tutulmaları üzerinde hesaplar yapmış. ve sin1 değerini hesaplamak için sin3q=3sinq-4sin^3q eşitliğini bulmuştur. bu eşitlik trigonometri kitaplarında “cemsid-ül kaşi” olarak bilinir
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harezmi

diophantus ile birlikte cebirin babası olarak bilinirler. harezmi, doğrusal ve ikinci dereceden denklemlerin sistematik çözümünü ilk sunan kişidir.

cebiri bağımsız bir disiplin olarak öğreten, “indirgeme” ve “dengeleme” yöntemlerini tanıtan ilk kişi de harezmidir. ki kendisi ilk cebir kitabını yazan ve batıya cebri öğretendir. cebir alanındaki çalışmaları, 16. yüzyıla kadar avrupa üniversitelerinde temel matematik ders kitabı olarak kullanılmıştır.

bir dönem hindistan’da da bulunan harezmi, hint-arap rakam sisteminin ortadoğu ve avrupa’ya tanıtan kişidir. cebir sözcüğünü ilk defa kitabında “el-cebr” şeklinde kullanmış ve algortima sözcüğü de harezmi’nin latince isminden türetilmiştir.

ayrıca harezmi sıfır rakamını (0) ve x bilinmeyenini kullandığı bilinen ilk kişidir. galileo ve fibonacci de dahil birçok batılı matematikçiye katkısı olmuştur harezmi’nin.

astronomi alanında harezmi’nin zij el-sindhind adlı eseri, takvimsel ve astronomik hesaplamalara dayanan, içerisinde bir sinus değeri tablosu ile birlikte 116 adet takvimsel, astronomik ve astrolojik veriyi barındıran, yaklaşık 37 bölümden oluşan bir çalışmadır. matematik, astronomi, coğrafya, algoritma gibi birçok dalda tarihe damga vuracak çalışmalar yapmıştır
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hazini

newton’dan tam 500 yıl önce, “her cismi yer kürenin merkezine doğru çeken bir güç” olduğunu; roger bacon’dan ise 100 yıl önce, “dünyanın merkezine doğru yaklaştıkça, suyun yoğunlaştığı” fikrini ortaya attı. ve çekme kuvvetinin düşen cisim ile çekim merkezi arasındaki mesafeye bağlı olduğunu söyledi.

sıvıların yoğunluğunu ölçme aletini keşfetti ve birçok katı, sıvı maddedin yoğunluğunu günümüz değerlerine yakın derecede ölçtü. ayrıca sıvılar gibi havanın da bir ağırlığı ve kaldırma kuvveti olduğundan bahsetti. güneş ışınlarının dünyaya doğrudan değil de kırılarak ulaştığını söyledi.

bunun yanında bir cismin, düşük yoğunluklu havada ağırlık kazandığını, yoğun havada veya suda ise ağırlığının azaldığını keşfetti. ayrıca bir çok islam şehrinde kıble tayini yapmıştır
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hezarfen ahmet çelebi

takma kanatlarla uçmayı başarabilen ilk insanlardan biridir ve galata kulesinden üsküdar’a kadar uçmuştur. hezarfen’den önce abbas ibn firnas ve ismail cevheri de uçmayı başarmıştır.
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huneyn bin ishak

bilinen en eski göz çizimlerini yapan göz doktorudur. ve henüz 17 yaşında tıp dersleri vermiştir. ilk çevirisini 17 yaşında yapan ishak, yunan hekim galen’in 100 kadar eserini süryanice’ye 50 kadarını da arapça’ya tercüme etmiştir
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ibni avvam

ortaçağın en büyük botanikçilerindendir. kitabul filaha eserinde 585 bitki türünden ve 50 çeşit meyve ağacının yetiştirilme usulerini anlatır. ayrıca aşı yapma tekniği, toprağın yapı özellikleri, gübreleme usulleri gibi konulardan da bahsetmiştir. bitkiler, ağaçlar arasında sempati ve antipati olduğu fikrini de öne sürmüştür.
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ibni baytar

“a’sab” yani “botanik bilgini” lakabı ile bilinir. eserlerinde 1400 kadar bitkiyi inceledi ve bunlardan çeşitli ilaçlar üretti. ayrıca mahsullere zarar veren otları da tespit etmiştir. bitki isimlerini arapça, farsça, fransızca, latince ve berberi dilleri ile kaydetti
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ibni cessar

cüzam hastalığının tedavisini bulan biliminsanı. kitapları latince, yunanca ve ibranice’ye çevrilmiştir. konstantin isimli bir kitap korsanı cessar’ın eserlerini “viatcium” adıyla kendine mal etse de daha sonra yalanı ortaya çıkarılmıştır
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ibni ebu useybia

ibni baytar ile birlikte botanik alanında çalışmaları olmuştur. tabakkatt-ul ettibba eserinde 380 kadar doktorun ve biliminsanının biyografisine yer vermiştir. bunların içinde hint ve yunan doktorlar da bulunur.
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ibni fazıl

794 yılında ilk kağıt fabrikasını kuran vezirdir ve bu kimine göre tarihin seyrini bile değiştirir. ilk defa 105 yılında kağıdı çinlilerin kullandığını bilinir ama bunun islam coğrafyasına ve avrupa’ya hızlı bir şekilde yayılmasını sağlayan ibni fazıl’dır.
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ibni firnas

tasarladığı kanatlar ile wright kardeşlerden 1023 sene önce uçmayı başarmış ve aynı zamanda tarihte uçan ilk kişidir. güneş ve gezegenleri hareket halinde gösteren bir plenatarium da yapmıştı. bilgin bu cihazla yıldızlarla birlikte bulutu ve şimşekleri de inceliyordu.

kaya kristallerini kesme yöntemini geliştirdi. o zamana kadar sadece mısırlılar kristal kesmeyi biliyordu. ünlü bilgin ayrıca kendisine has metodlarla bir kısım taşlardan mükemmel cam imal etme usûlünü keşfetmiş, cam sanayiinin de öncüsü olmuştu. ayrıca düzeltme kabiliyeti olan camı keşfederek gözlüğün mucidi olduğu kabul edilir.
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ibni haldun

modern historiyografinin, sosyolojinin, tarih felsefesinin ve iktisatın öncülerinden kabul edilir. 7 ciltlik büyük dünya tarihi olan kitâbu’l-iber eserinin yazarıdır. emevi ve abbasi hanedanlarının tarihi de dahil arap, fars, yahudi, eski mısır, türk, frank ve berberiler olmak üzere birçok milletin tarihinden bahseder.

ibni haldun’un en bilinen eseri olan ve 2 ciltten oluşan mukaddime ise aslında kitabul iber eserinin birinci cildidir. ki mukaddime kelime anlamı olarak önsöz demektir. bir diğer önemli eseri olan et tarif ise yazarın otobiyografisidir ve islam tarihinin en ayrıntılı otobiyografisi olarak bilinir. bu da kitabul iber serisinin son cildine eklenmiştir.
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ibni hatip

veba hastalığı üzerinde yaptığı araştırmalar ile tanınır. kendi döneminde vebanın bulaşıcı olmadığı inancı yaygın iken o yaptığı araştırmalar ve peygamberimizin de bir hadisinden faydalanarak veba salgınının bulaşıcı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. kendisi aynı zamanda vezir, şairdir ve felsefe ile de uğraşmıştır
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ibni havkal

943 – 969 yılları arası yani 26 yılseyahat etmiş 10. yüzyılın ünlü islam yazarı, coğrafyacısı ve tarihçisidir.suret-el arz en önemli eseridir. iran, türkistan, sicilya, kuzey afrika, endülüs, arap yarımadası, azerbaycan dahil birçok yer hakkında bilgi vermiştir eserlerinde.
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ibni batutta

ülke ülke , kıta kıta dolaşan büyük bir
seyyah. orta çağın en büyük seyyahı ve rıhlet-ü ibn battûta diye bilinen seyahatnâmenin yazarıdır. ömrünün 29 senelik bir bölümünü seyahatlerle geçirerek; asya, afrika ve avrupa gibi 3 kıtayı dolaşmıştır.
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ibni heysem

latince ismi:alhacen veya alhazen

modern bilimsel metodu geliştiren ve kullanan ilk kişi olduğu için “dünyanın gerçek ilk biliminsanı” kabul edilir. farklı alanlarda sayısız çalışmaya imza atan heysem islam tarihinin de en büyük fizikçisidir. ve aynı zamanda optik biliminin kurucusudur.

newton’dan önce“birinci hareket yasası” olanolan eylemsizlik yasası’ndan söz etmiştir ibni heysem. pierre de fermat’ın “en küçük süre ilkesi”ne birkaç yüzyıl önceden katkıda bulunmuştur heysem.

biruni ve ibni sina ile aynı dönemde yaşadı. aristo ve batlamyus’un çalışmalarını inceleyip hatalarını ortaya koydu. dünya merkezli bir kainat olamayacağını ve uzayda başka cisimlerin de olacağını söyledi. kendi dönemine kadar görme olayının gözden çıkan ışık ile olduğu sanılıyordu, heysem esyadan yansıyan ışığın göze gelmesi ve gözün arka odak noktasında birleşmesi sonucu görme eyleminin gerçekleştiğini ortaya koydu.

“karanlık oda” üzerinde ilk kez matematiksel incelemelerde bulundu. gökkuşağının nasıl oluştuğunu renklerin nasıl meydana geldiğini izah etti. billur küre şeklindeki küçük su taneciklerinden güneş ışığının kırılıp yansıma prensiplerini açıkladı.

işığın yansıması ile optiğe getirdiği yenilikler ile bilim dünyasında “alhazen problemi” diye meşhur olmuştur. astronomik tan’ın güneş ufkun tam 19 derece altındayken başladığını veya bittiğini ortaya koydu.hava yoğunluğunun ışığın kırılması ile doğru orantılı olduğunu ve hava yoğunluğunun yükseklik ile değiştiğini ortaya koydu

geometriyi mantığa uyguladı, öklid ve apollonius’un geometrik ve sayısal metodlarını geliştirdi. nil nehri ile ilgili sulama projesi ve teknik çalışmalarda bulunmuştur.
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ibni karaka

kahire’de beş metre çapında olan dünyanın ilk torna tezgahını yaptı. bu sayede bakır levhalar, demir daireler kolaylıkla kesiliyor, bunlar usturlabdan günlük ihtiyaçlara kadar her yerde kullanılıyordu
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ibni macid

pusulanın beytü’l-ibre / hokkası içine manyetik iğneyi ilk defa ibn mâcid yerleştirmiştir. ünlü portekizli denizci vasco da gama, ibn mâcid’in rehberliğinde hindistan’ı keşfetmiştir.

kıbletü’l-islâm adlı eserinde dünyanın farklı bölgelerinde kıblenin nasıl belirleneceğini anlatmakta ve pusula (kumpas) hakkında geniş bilgi vermektedir.
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ibni nefis

küçük kan dolaşımını, koroner dolaşımları ve kılcal damarları ilk keşfeden kişidir. asıl alanı tıp ve anatomidir. dolaşımsal fizyolojinin babası ve “orta çağın en büyük fizyoloğu” olarak bilinir.

insan ve hayvan vücudu benzerliği üzerinden uygulamada pratik ve tecrübeye geçiş devrini başlatmıştır. bu yüzden deneysel tıbbın ve otopsinin öncülerinden sayılır. ayrıca gözün yapısını ve görme olayını da modern anlamda açıklığa kavuşturmuştur. bunun yanında astronomi, psikoloji, jeoloji, hadis, fıkıh, siyer, mantık, gibi bircok farklı alanda da çalışmıştır
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ibni sina

batıdaki adı: avicenna

hekimlerin önderi, büyük üstad lakapları ile bilinir. kitapları avrupa’da 600 yıl boyunca temel kitaplar olarak okutuldu. değişik konular üzerine 240’ı günümüze gelen 450 kadar makale yazdı. elimizdeki yazıların 150 tanesi felsefe 40 tanesi de tıp üzerinedir.

en önemli eserleri kitabü’ş-şifa (iyileşme kitabı) ile el-kanun fi’t-tıb’dır (tıbbın kanunu). henüz 14 yaşında hocalarını geçmiş, 19 yaşında ise doktor ünvanı almıştır. ayrıca geometri, matematik, dogabilim, metafizik, ruhbilim gibi birçok konuda çalışmaları olmuştur. asıl alanları ise tıp ve felsefe
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ibni türk

harezmi ile aynı çağda yaşamış ve o da harezmi gibi ikinci dereceden denklemlerin çözümü üzerine çalışmalar yapmıştır. hatta yaptığı çözümler harezmi’nin çözümlerine göre daha ayrıntılı
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ibni yunus

avrupada ismi: aben jenis

yıldızların gözlemlenmesinde kullanılan ve kaybolan periyodların tespitine yardımcı olan sarkaç aletini galile’den yıllar önce keşfetti. aynı şekilde saatlerde de sarkacı kullanan ilk kişidir. ayrıca 18 yıldızın gök küresindeki koordinat değerlerini buldu.

ayrıca ay ve güneş tutulmalarını kendi dönemine kadarki en hassas hesaplarla tespit etti.
trigonometrideki dönüşüm formüllerini ilk defa kullanan kisidir. ve aynı zamanda logaritmanin temel prensibi olan çarpmayı bölmeye çevirme usulünü ilk defa kullanan kişidir
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ibni zühr

batıdaki isimleri: abulelizor, avenzoar, abumeron ve abuleizor

kalp çeperi iltihabının tarifini yaptı. ilk defa peritonit, sulu ve kuru perikarditi akciğer hastalıklarından ayıran kişidir. ve ortaya koyduğu yeni tedavi modelleri ile tıp dünyasında tanındı
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ibrahim efendi

osmanlıda ilk denizaltıyı gerçekleştiren mühendistir. timsah şeklinde yapılan bu denizaltının ismi tahtelbahir’dır. şehzadelerin ve 5 bin fakir çocuğunun sünnet edileceği bir şenlikte tanıtıldı denizaltı
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ibrahim hakkı

en önemli eseri marifatname’dır. bu eserinde dünya haritasını çizimi ve ilk defa güneş sistemi resmedilmiştir. eserin coğrafya kısmında ise yüzden fazla ilin enlem ve boylamlarını tespit edip yazmıştır.
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idrisi

latince ismi: dreses

bugünküne çok benzeyen bir dünya haritası çizdi. dünyanın küre şeklinde olduğunu düşünen idrisi’nin eserindeki 70 paftalık dünya haritası o güne kadar bilinen dünya coğrafyasını tasvir eden en geniş çalışmadır.

ayrıca botanik ve zooloji dallarında çalışan idrisi tedavide kullanılacak yeni bitkiler keşfetmiş. ve eserinde bitkilerin 12 dilde ilaçların da 6 dilde karşılığını yazmıştır. çalışmaları ile norman kralı 2.roger’in dikkatini çekmiş ve palermo’ya davet edilmiştir.
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ismail gelenbevi

anadoluya logaritmayı ilk getiren kişidir ve logaritma üzerine risalesi vardır. ömrünün sonuna doğru da cebir kitabı yazmıştır. eski yöntemle problem çözen son osmanlı matematikçisidir
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istahri

meşhur minyatürlü coğrafya kitabını yazan bilgin ve bir tür masalek (lit. “güzergahlar”) edebiyatının kurucusudur. mesalik-ul memalik eserinde 20 harita bulunur ve haritalarını renkli bir şekile çizmiştir.
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kadızade rumi

türklerin ilk astronomu olarak bilinir. uluğ bey medresesinin rasathanesinde müdürlük yapmış ve ali kuşçu, fethullah şirvani gibi talebeler yetiştirmiştir. rasathanede yaptığı gözlemler ile eski yunan bilginlerinden gelen birçok bilginin hatalı kısımlarını tespit etmiştir
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katip çelebi

15 bin kitabı ve 10 bin yazarı alfabetik sırayla tanıttığı keşfü’z-zunûn an esâmi’l-kütüb ve’l-fünûn eseri batıdaki en ünlü eseridir. bir diğer eseri olan cihannuma ise türk coğrafya tarihi için klasik devirden, modern devire geçişi başlatmıştır
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kazvini

ünlü astronom ve coğrafyacı. acayibul mahlukat eserinde yıldızlardan insanlara birçok varlık hakkında bilgi vermiştir.

acayibul buldan eserinde ise dünyayı batlamyus gibi 7 iklime ayırmış ve her iklimde bulunan ülkeleri bütün yönleri ile anlatmıştır
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kemaleddin farisi

ibni heysem’den öğrendikleri ile optik alanında çalışmalar yapmış ünlü matematik ve fizik alimidir. ibn-i heysem’den yaptığı alıntıları “dedi”, kendi yorumunu “diyorum” ve hocasıyla ortak değerlendirmelerini ise “diyoruz” sözcükleriyle ayırdetmiştir
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kerhi

cebir alanındaki çalışmaları ile tanınan ünlü matematikçi. iki sayının küplerinin toplamının hiçbir zaman küp olamayacağını ortaya koymuştur. ünlü pascal üçgeni pascal’dan 4 asır önce “el bahr fil cebr” eserinde ortaya koyan kişidir.
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kindi

avrupadaki isimleri: alkhindus, el kindus, alchinrinus

islam dünyasının ilk filozofu olarak bilinir. bunun yanında tıp, matematik, ilahiyat, astronomi, psikoloji, fizik, kimya ve müzik gibi birçok alanda çalışmaları bulunur. akla büyük önem veren meşşailik felsefesini ilk başlatan kişi de olan kindi’in 17 eseri latinceye 4’ü de ibraniceye çevrilmiştir

ibni heysem’e kadar optik alanında kindi’nin eserleri hakimdi. açıların pergelle ölçülmesini ilk başlatan kişidir. ayrıca kendisi izafiyet teorisinin fikir babası sayılır. einstein’den asırlar önce eserlerinde zaman, mekan ve hareketin birbirinden bağımsız olamayacağını söylemiştir.

ayrıca hava tahminleri üzerine çalışmış ve eserler vermiştir. kindi’in 270’e yakın eseri bulunur
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lagari hasan çelebi

barut macunundan hazırlanmış fişekler ile tarihte ilk kez roketle uçuş yapan osmanlı mühendisi. yaklaşık 300 metre havalanmış ve 20 saniye havada kaldığı ölçülmüştür.

daha sonra kırım’a sürgün edilmiştir ve ilginçtir ki modern anlamda ilk roket çalışmaları da kırım’ın içinde bulunduğu ukrayna’da başlamıştır
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macriti

ünlü kimyager ve matematikçi. batlamyus’un gök haritası üzerine notlar düşen ve hataları düzeltmeye çalışan kişidir.

civaoksit oluşumunu sağlayan tepkimeyi gerçekleştirmiştir. ayrıca insanlar gibi hayvanlarda da gruplaşma, başkanlık ve belli diller olduğunu söylemiştir
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mesudi

“arapların heredot’u” lakaplı ve dünya tarihini konu eden eseri murûc ez-zeheb ve ma’âdin el-cevâhir eseriyle birlikte tarih ile coğrafyayı geniş çaplı ve ayrıntılı bir biçimde birleştiren ve aynı eserde sunan ilk arap olmuştur.

eserlerinde ortadoğu, azerbaycan, ermenistan gibi yerler dışında hindistan, sri lanka ve çin’den de bahsetmiştir
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mimar sinan

bugün bile eserlerinden büyük bi övgüyle bahsedilen dünyaca ünlü inşaat mühendisi ve mimar.

81 camii, 51 mescit, 55 medrese, 26 darül-kurra, 17 türbe, 17 imarethane, 3 darüşşifa, 5 su yolu, 8 köprü, 20 kervansaray, 36 saray, 8 mahzen ve 48 de hamam olmak üzere toplamda 375 eser yapmıştır.

eserlerinde drenaj, hava, tahliye, rutubet kanalları da yapan mimar sinan aynı zamanda matematiği de muhteşem bir şekilde kullanmıştır. en önemli eseri olan edirne selimiye camisi dünya kültür mirası listesindedir.
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mimar ismail ve mimar isa efendiler

mimar sinan’ın öğrencileri olduğu iddia edilen ve bugün dünyanın en büyük mimari eserlerinden kabul edilen taç mahal’ın mimarlarıdırlar. yapımı yaklaşık 22 yıl süren bu eserin üzerindeki yazıları da hattat settar efendi yazmıştır.
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molla lutfi

fatih döneminin ünlü matematikçilerinden. taz’ifü’l-mezbah adlı kitabı iki bölümden oluşur. birinci bölümde kare ve küp tarifleri, çizgilerin ve yüzeylerin çarpımı ve iki kat yapılması gibi geometri konuları ele alınmıştır.

ikinci bölümde ise meşhur delos problemi incelenmiştir. molla lütfi’nin, bu problemi, izmir’li theon’un eserinden öğrendiği anlaşılmaktadır
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fatih sultan mehmet

8-9 dil bildiği iddia edilen fatih, büyük bir hükümdar olmasının yanında aynı zamanda mühendis zekası ile tanınır.

kendisi şahi ve havan topunun mucididir. zengin bir kütüphaneye sahip olan fatih bilimadamlarına ve bilime büyük bir önem vermiştir
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mürsiyeli ibrahim

piri reis’ten 52 yıl önce ceylan derisi üzerine bugünküne uygun akdeniz haritasını çizmiştir.
çağdaş haritacılığın babası kabul edilir. ve avrupa kaynaklı haritaların bile bu mükemmelliğe ulaşamadıkları bilinir
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nasureddin tusi

trigonometri alanında ilk defa eser veren ve maraga rasathanesini kuran kişidir. felsefe alanında ise daha çok meşşai filozoflarının yolundan gitmiş olduğu söylenebilir. ayrıca kendisi islam dünyasında ilk defa bir sistematik etik kitabını yazan kişidir.
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necmeddin-ul mısri

güneşi doğuşundan batışına kadar incelemiş ayrıca geceleri yıldızlar üzerine gözlemler yapmıştır. bu verilere dayanarak namazların vakitlerini tayin etmiştir. çağdaş, küresel astronominin temellerini atanlardan biri sayılır
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ömer hayyam

binom açılımı kullanan ilk biliminsanı. dünyanın ilk rasathanesini kurmuş ve aynı ayrıca miladi ve hicri takvimden çok daha hassas olan celali takvimini de hazırlayan kişidir.ayrıca ömer hayyam için tarihteki ilk bilinen savaş karşıtı eylemci yakıştırması da yapılmaktadır.

matematik dışında ömer hayyam rubai denilen şiirleri ile ünlüdür. bilinen kadarıyla rûbailerinin sayısı 158’dir fakat kendisine mâl edilenler binin üzerindedir.
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piri reis

1513 yılında ilk dünya haritasını çizen kişidir. 1528’de, ilkinden daha içerikli ikinci dünya haritasını çizdi. amerika’yı gösteren dünya haritaları ve kitabı bahriye adlı denizcilik kitabıyla tanınanan piri reis denizcilik hayatına korsan olarak başlamıştır.
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sabit bin kurra

batılı bilginlerin bir kısmı onun için “arapların öklid’i” tabirini kullanır. kendisi diferansiyel hesabını newton’dan önce keşfeden kişidir.

cebiri ilk kez geometriye uygulayan kişidir. dünyanın çapını ve iki meridyen arası uzaklığı doğru olarak hesaplayan ilk bilginlerdendir.

kamus’ul alam adlı eserde belirtildiğine göre matematiğin bir kolu olan kalkulusun keşfi ona aittir. kalkulusa “tefadul” adını vermiştir. aynı zamanda paraboller üzerine yaptığı çalışmalar ile integral kalkulusu keşfine giden yolu açtı. bu ve buna benzer birçok çalışma ortaya koyan sabit bilimin en önemli isimlerinden biridir ve birçok eseri batıda başka dillere çevrilmiştir

arapça, yunanca, suryanice ve rumca’yı iyi derecede bilen sabit, kendi dönemindeki beytul hikme’nin en önemli 4 çevirmeninden biriydi
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sabuncuoğlu şerafeddin

fatih döneminin meşhur hekimlerindendir ve 17 yaşında hekimliğe başlamıştır. özellikle cerrahi ile ilgilenmiştir.

osmanlidaki ilk resimli cerrahi eserin sahibidir. yılan zehrinden diş ağrısına kadar birçok durum için ilaçlar geliştirmiş ve bunun yani sıra ameliyatların nasıl yapılacağını da anlatmıştır
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şemseddin halili

vakit cetvelleri hazırlayan astronom. şam enlemini esas alarak namaz vakitlerini ve kıbleyi belirledi. dünyanın ekseni etrafındaki eğimini 23 21 olarak hesaplamış ve dürbünden önce gözlem aracı olarak kullanılan rubu aleti denilen kadranı keşfettiği söylenir.
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şerafeddin ali bin isa

batıdaki ismi: jesu haly

ilk defa göz hastalıkları hakkında eser veren kişidir. bu yüzden oftalmolojinin kurucusu olarak bilinir. lokal anesteziyi ilk nasıl yaptığını ve özellikle adamotu, afyon bitkisini bu iş için nasıl kullandığını anlatır eserlerinde
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takiyuddin el rasid

istanbul rasathanesini ilk kuran kişidir. astronomi hesaplarında altmış tabanlı yerine on tabanlı sayı sistemini kullanmıştır

1’den 90 dereceye kadar sinüs ve tanjant hesaplarını tablolar halinde kullanıma sunmuş, 841’i türkçe 1337 eser oluşturmuştur.
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ebu kasım zehravi

batıdaki ismi: albucasis, abulcasis

tıpta ilklerin temelini atan zehravi cerrahinin babası/atası olarak bilinir. günümüzde ameliyatlarda kullanılan aletlerin çok büyük çoğunluğunun öncüsüdür. cerrahide kullanılan 200 kadar aletin resmini çizmiştir. bu linkten bütün aletlerin isimlerine ulaşabilirsiniz
http://www.tarihikadim.com/ebul-kasim-el-zehravi-ve-icat-ettigi-cerrahi-aletler/

ilk böbrek ameliyatı, ilk defa ameliyatla böbrek taşlarını düşüren, dış gebeligi ilk tanımlayan, hemofilinin kalıtsal olduğunu ilk belirleyen, ceninin ters doğumuna müdaheleyi ilk tavsiye eden, vaginal taş ameliyatı, trakeotomi ameliyatı, trendeleng durumunu ilk defa tavsiye eden, ilk fıtık ameliyatı, dişlerin kursunla doldurulup çekilmesi fikrini ilk ortaya atan, madeni şırıngayı ilk kullanan, ameliyat dikişlerinde ilk defa ipek ipliği kullanan kişi
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zerkali

ilk defa batlamyus’un aksine dünyanın gerçek yörünge noktası hareketini ve güneşin tadil merkezinin asırlık değişikliğe bağlı olduğunu keşfederek kanuna bağlayan kişidir

zerkali, tuleytula adıyla ünlü olan ilk astronomi cetvellerini düzenledi. tuleytulada 402den fazla gözlem yaptı vepresesyon vüsatini de aynı tarzda doğru olarak hesapladı. zerkali dünyanın güneşe olan uzaklığını hesapladı.

güneşin yörünge noktasını 12 saniye kadar doğru bir yön, yani doğudan batıya doğru bir değişiklik vererek güneş için yeni bir teori ortaya atıp değişim merkezindeki düzensizliği de ortadan kaldırdı
————————
fatima el fihri

dünyanın kesintisiz eğitim veren en eski üniversitesi olan karaviyyin medresesinin kurucusudur.ibn-i haldun, ibn-i arabi, el idrisi gibi ünlü isimler burada eğitim görmüştür. lisans eğitimi, 20 kişilik sınıflarda ve halka açık bir şekilde veriliyordu.
————————-
kordobalı lubna

karmaşık geometrik ve cebir problemlerini çözebilen bir matematikçiydi. 500 binden fazla kitabın olduğu döneminin en büyük kütüphanelerinden birinin yönetimi kendi elindeydi.
—————————-
süteyte el mahamali

süteyte mahamali birçok önemli matematiksel problemlerin ispatını sunmuş olan seçkin bir matematikçi idi. kaynaklara göre aritmetik ve miras hesaplarında ileri derece bir seviyedeydi.
ayrıca edebiyat, hadis ve fıkıh alanlarında ileri bilgiye sahipti.
—————————
halife memun

müslüman bilim insanları dışında özellikle değinmek istediğim bir isim de halife memun. kendisi islam tarihinde bilime verdiği önem ile bilinir.

müslüman biliminsanlarını bağdat’da toplayan halife memnun, söylenene göre bilginlere çevirdikleri kitap ve ortaya çıkardıkları akademik eserlerin ağırlığınca altın verirdi ödül olarak.
abbasiler döneminde bilim merkezi olarak kurulan beytul hikme, halife memun döneminde büyük bir sıçrayış yaşamıştır ve kendisi burada gerçekleştirilen felsefi, dini, tarihi ve siyasi sohbetlerin yapıldığı meclislere bizzat başkanlık etmiştir.

ishak bin huneyn, sabit bin kurra, musa kardeşler, harezmi, kindi gibi büyük bilginler halife memun dönemine aittir. ayrıca hintçe ve yunanca başta olmak üzere birçok dilden eserleri çevirmeleri için biliminsanlarını görevlendirmistir
—————————–
özet olarak bazı ilkler;

• günümüz bilimsel metodu oluşturan ve dünyanın ilk gerçek biliminsanı kabul edilen bilgin ibni heysem
• kızamık ve çiçek hastalığını keşfeden; alim razi
• ilk böbrek ameliyatını yapan zehravi
• ilk kağıt fabrikasını kuran alim ibni fazıl
• mikrobu ilk tanımlayan alim akşemseddin
• cüzzamı bulan alim ibni cessar
• vebanın bulaşıcı olduğunu bulan alim ibni hatip
• verem mikrobunu bulan alim kambur vesîm
• retina tabakasını bulan alim ibni rüşd
• ilk göz ameliyatını yapan alim ammar
• ilk kanser ameliyatını yapan alim ali bin abbas
• küçük kan dolaşımını bulan alim ibnünnefis • ilk tabipler odası başkanı ali bin rıdvan
• sıfırı ilk kullanan alim harezmi
• trigonometriyi ilk bulan alim battani
• tanjant, kotanjant ve kosekantı ilk kullanan alim ebul vefa
• trigonometri kitabını yazan alim nasiruddin tusi
• ilk trigonometrik dönüşüm formülünü bulan alim ibni yunus
• binom formülünü ilk bulan alim ömer hayam • ilk difransiyel kitabını yazan alim. sabit bin kura
• ondalık kesiri ilk bulan alim gıyaseddin cemşid
• ilk usturlabı yapan alim zerkali
• dünyanın döndüğünü keşfeden ilk alimbiruni • dünyanın çevresini ilk ölçen alim musa kardeşler
• güneşin yüzündeki lekeleri ilk bulan alim fergani
• yıldızların yer ve açıklıklarını ölçen ve ilk cetveli geliştiren alim cabir bin eflah
• ilk otomatik kontrol sistemleri tasarlayan alim ahmet bin musa
• sibernetiği ilk kuran alim ismail-el gezeri
• ilk optik temellerini koyan alim ibni heysem
• sesin fiziki açıklamasını ilk yapan alim farabi • ilk torna tezgahını yapan alim ibni karara
• kanatlarla uçan ilk alim hazerfen ahmed çelebi
• ilk havada uçan bilgin ebu firnas
• yer çekimini ilk bulan alim razi
• sarkaçlı saati ilk yapan alim ibni yunus
• maddelerin özgül ağırlığını ilk hesaplayan alim hazini
• atomun parçalanabileceğim ilk bulan alim cabir bin hayan
• gök kuşağını ilk açıklayan alim kutbettin şirazi
• ilk kimya laboratuarını kuran alim cabir
• saf alkolü ilk elde eden alim razi
• fosforu ilk bulan alim beşir
• havan topunu ilk bulan alim fatih sultan mehmed
• ilk kıta seyahatnamesini yazan alim ibni battuta
• ilk dünya haritasını çizen alim mürsiyeli ibrahim
• ilk ecza kitabını yazan alim ibni baytar

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